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Avibactam is a novel investigational non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor that is being developed for possible use in combination with ceftaroline in the U.S. Avibactam does not have any intrinsic antibacterial activity in its own right, but appears to be capable of inhibiting beta-lactamase enzymes that belong to molecular classes A and C.Avibactam is useful for Antibiotics.
1 . Livermore DM, Mushtaq S, Barker K, Hope R, Warner M, Woodford N. Characterization of β-lactamase and porin mutants of Enterobacteriaceae selected with ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Jun;67(6):1354-8.
OBJECTIVES: Ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104) is a novel inhibitor combination active against Enterobacteriaceae with class A and C β-lactamases. We investigated its risk of mutational resistance.METHODS: Single- and multi-step mutants were sought and characterized from Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases and KPC β-lactamases.RESULTS: Overgrowth occurred on agar with low MIC multiples of ceftaroline + avibactam, but frequencies for single-step mutants were <10(-9). Most mutants were unstable, with only three remaining resistant on subculture. For one, from an CTX-M-15-positive Escherichia coli, the ceftaroline + avibactam MIC was raised, but the organism had reduced resistance to ceftaroline and lost resistance to other oxyimino-cephalosporins, with this profile retained when the mutant bla(CTX-M-15) was cloned into E. coli DH5α. Sequencing identified a Lys237Gln substitution in the CTX-M-15 variant. The other two stable single-step mutants were from an AmpC-derepressed Enterobacter cloacae strain; these had unaltered or slightly reduced resistance to other β-lactams. Both had amino acids 213-226 deleted from the Ω loop of AmpC. Further stable mutants were obtained from AmpC-inducible and -derepressed E. cloacae in multi-step selection, and these variously had reduced expression of OmpC and OmpF, and/or Asn366His/Ile substitutions in AmpC.CONCLUSIONS: Stable resistant mutants were difficult to select. Those from AmpC-derepressed E. cloacae had porin loss or AmpC changes, including Ω loop deletions. A Lys237Gln substitution in CTX-M-15 conferred resistance, but largely abolished ESBL activity.
2 . Castanheira M, Sader HS, Farrell DJ, Mendes RE, Jones RN. Activity of Ceftaroline-Avibactam Tested against Gram-Negative Organism Populations, including Strains Expressing One or More β-Lactamases and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carrying Various Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Types. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Sep;56(9):4779-85.
Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms. The prodrug of ceftaroline, ceftaroline fosamil, combined with the β-lactamase inhibitor avibactam (formerly NXL104), was tested against Enterobacteriaceae strains producing Ambler class A, B, C, and D enzymes, including strains producing multiple enzymes, as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Isolates were collected from 1999 to 2008 from global surveillance programs, and susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftaroline-avibactam exhibited potent activity against Enterobacteriaceae producing various β-lactamase types (MIC(90), 0.25 to 2 μg/ml, except for metalloenzymes), including 99 strains carrying multiple enzymes (2 to 4 β-lactamases; MIC(90), 2 μg/ml). All isolates were inhibited by ceftaroline-avibactam at ≤4 μg/ml. Ceftaroline-avibactam (MIC(90), 0.5 to 1 μg/ml) was more active than meropenem (MIC(90), >8 μg/ml) and other comparators when tested against KPC-producing strains. S. aureus strains, including MRSA with four staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types, were dominantly (99.1%) inhibited by ceftaroline-avibactam at ≤2 μg/ml, and the ceftaroline MIC was not adversely affected by the addition of the β-lactamase inhibitor (MIC(50/90), 1 and 2 μg/ml for ceftaroline with and without avibactam). Ceftaroline-avibactam demonstrated limited activity against Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa (MIC(50)s, 32 and 16 μg/ml, respectively). These results document that ceftaroline-avibactam has potent activity against Enterobacteriaceae that produce KPC, various ESBL types (CTX-M types), and AmpC (chromosomally derepressed or plasmid-mediated enzymes), as well as against those producing more than one of these β-lactamase types, and its development as a therapeutic option for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae as well as MRSA is warranted.
3 . Akta? Z, Kayacan C, Oncul O. In vitro activity of avibactam (NXL104) in combination with β-lactams against Gram-negative bacteria, including OXA-48 β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012 Jan;39(1):86-9.
The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of avibactam (formerly NXL104) in combination with imipenem, cefepime or ceftazidime against Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial isolates included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbouring PER-1 β-lactamase (n=14); Acinetobacter baumannii harbouring PER-1, OXA-51 and OXA-58 (n=20); carbapenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=25) and Escherichia coli (n=1) harbouring OXA-48; carbapenem-non-susceptible E. coli (n=1) harbouring both IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL); carbapenem-non-susceptible Serratia marcescens (n=1); and carbapenem-susceptible E. coli (n=20) and K. pneumoniae isolates (n=12) with CTX-M-15 ESBL. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem, cefepime and ceftazidime were determined in combination with 4 mg/L avibactam by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method on Mueller-Hinton agar. Imipenem/avibactam and ceftazidime/avibactam displayed limited potency against A. baumannii isolates, whereas cefepime/avibactam and ceftazidime/avibactam were active against P. aeruginosa. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with OXA-48 β-lactamase were resistant to imipenem [MIC for 90% of the organisms (MIC(90)) ≥4 mg/L]. MIC(90) values for the combination of avibactam 4 mg/L with imipenem, cefepime and ceftazidime were in the susceptible range for all strains (MIC(90)≤0.5mg/L). All E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates with CTX-M-15 β-lactamase were inhibited at ≤1 mg/L for combinations with avibactam and 100% were susceptible by CLSI breakpoint criteria to imipenem, cefepime and ceftazidime. In conclusion, combinations of imipenem, cefepime and ceftazidime with avibactam may present a promising therapeutic strategy to treat infections due to K. pneumoniae with OXA-48 enzyme as well as K. pneumoniae and E. coli with CTX-M-15 enzyme.
4 . Ehmann DE, Jahic H, Ross PL, Gu RF, Hu J, Kern G, Walkup GK, Fisher SL. Avibactam is a covalent, reversible, non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 17;109(29):11663-8.
Avibactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor that is in clinical development, combined with β-lactam partners, for the treatment of bacterial infections comprising Gram-negative organisms. Avibactam is a structural class of inhibitor that does not contain a β-lactam core but maintains the capacity to covalently acylate its β-lactamase targets. Using the TEM-1 enzyme, we characterized avibactam inhibition by measuring the on-rate for acylation and the off-rate for deacylation. The deacylation off-rate was 0.045 min(-1), which allowed investigation of the deacylation route from TEM-1. Using NMR and MS, we showed that deacylation proceeds through regeneration of intact avibactam and not hydrolysis. Other than TEM-1, four additional clinically relevant β-lactamases were shown to release intact avibactam after being acylated. We showed that avibactam is a covalent, slowly reversible inhibitor, which is a unique mechanism of inhibition among β-lactamase inhibitors.
5 . In vitro activity of avibactam (NXL104) in combination with β-lactams against Gram-negative bacteria, including OXA-48 β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae By Aktas, Z.; Kayacan, C.; Oncul, O. From International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2012)
The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of avibactam (formerly NXL104) in combination with imipenem, cefepime or ceftazidime against Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial isolates included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbouring PER-1 β-lactamase (n=14); Acinetobacter baumannii harbouring PER-1, OXA-51 and OXA-58 (n=20); carbapenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=25) and Escherichia coli (n=1) harbouring OXA-48; carbapenem-non-susceptible E. coli (n=1) harbouring both IMP-1 metallo-β-lactamase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL); carbapenem-non-susceptible Serratia marcescens (n=1); and carbapenem-susceptible E. coli (n=20) and K. pneumoniae isolates (n=12) with CTX-M-15 ESBL. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem, cefepime and ceftazidime were determined in combination with 4 mg/L avibactam by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) method on Mueller-Hinton agar. ...
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