|References on Vaniprevir:
1 . McCauley JA, McIntyre CJ, Rudd MT, Nguyen KT, Romano JJ, Butcher JW, Gilbert KF, Bush KJ, Holloway MK, Swestock J, Wan BL, Carroll SS, DiMuzio JM, Graham DJ, Ludmerer SW, Mao SS, Stahlhut MW, Fandozzi CM, Trainor N, Olsen DB, Vacca JP, Liverton NJ.Discovery of vaniprevir (MK-7009), a macrocyclic hepatitis C virus NS3/4a protease inhibitor.J Med Chem. 2010 Mar 25;53(6):2443-63.
A new class of HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors which contain a P2 to P4 macrocyclic constraint was designed using a molecular-modeling derived strategy. Exploration of the P2 heterocyclic region, the P2 to P4 linker, and the P1 side chain of this class of compounds via a modular synthetic strategy allowed for the optimization of enzyme potency, cellular activity, and rat liver exposure following oral dosing. These studies led to the identification of clinical candidate 35b (vaniprevir, MK-7009), which is active against both the genotype 1 and genotype 2 NS3/4a protease enzymes and has good plasma exposure and excellent liver exposure in multiple species.
2 . Song ZJ, Tellers DM, Journet M, Kuethe JT, Lieberman D, Humphrey G, Zhang F, Peng Z, Waters MS, Zewge D, Nolting A, Zhao D, Reamer RA, Dormer PG, Belyk KM, Davies IW, Devine PN, Tschaen DM.Synthesis of vaniprevir (MK-7009): lactamization to prepare a 20-membered [corrected] macrocycle.J Org Chem. 2011 Oct 7;76(19):7804-15. Epub 2011 Aug 31.
Development of a practical synthesis of MK-7009, a 20-membered [corrected] macrocycle, is described. A variety of ring-closing strategies were evaluated, including ring-closing metathesis, intermolecular palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings, and macrolactamization. Ring closure via macrolactamization was found to give the highest yields under relatively high reaction concentrations. Optimization of the ring formation step and the synthesis of key intermediates en route to MK-7009 are reported.
3 . Manns MP, Gane E, Rodriguez-Torres M, Stoehr A, Yeh CT, Marcellin P, Wiedmann RT, Hwang PM, Caro L, Barnard RJ, Lee AW; for the MK-7009 Protocol 007 Study Group.Vaniprevir with pegylated interferon alpha-2a and ribavirin in treatment-na?ve patients with chronic hepatitis C: A randomized phase II study.Hepatology. 2012 Sep;56(3):884-893.
Vaniprevir (MK-7009) is a macrocyclic hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3/4A protease inhibitor. The aim of the present phase II study was to examine virologic response rates with vaniprevir in combination with pegylated interferon alpha-2a (Peg-IFN-α-2a) plus ribavirin (RBV). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study, treatment-na?ve patients with HCV genotype 1 infection (n = 94) were randomized to receive open-label Peg-IFN-α-2a (180 μg/week) and RBV (1,000-1,200 mg/day) in combination with blinded placebo or vaniprevir (300 mg twice-daily [BID], 600 mg BID, 600 mg once-daily [QD], or 800 mg QD) for 28 days, then open-label Peg-IFN-α-2a and RBV for an additional 44 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was rapid viral response (RVR), defined as undetectable plasma HCV RNA at week 4. Across all doses, vaniprevir was associated with a rapid two-phase decline in viral load, with HCV RNA levels approximately 3log(10) IU/mL lower in vaniprevir-treated patients, compared to placebo recipients. Rates of RVR were significantly higher in each of the vaniprevir dose groups, compared to the control regimen (68.8%-83.3% versus 5.6%; P < 0.001 for all comparisons). There were numerically higher, but not statistically significant, early and sustained virologic response rates with vaniprevir, as compared to placebo. Resistance profile was predictable, with variants at R155 and D168 detected in a small number of patients. No relationship between interleukin-28B genotype and treatment outcomes was demonstrated in this study. The incidence of adverse events was generally comparable between vaniprevir and placebo recipients; however, vomiting appeared to be more common at higher vaniprevir doses. Conclusion: Vaniprevir is a potent HCV protease inhibitor with a predictable resistance profile and favorable safety profile that is suitable for QD or BID administration. (HEPATOLOGY 2012;56:884-893).
4 . Kong J, Chen CY, Balsells-Padros J, Cao Y, Dunn RF, Dolman SJ, Janey J, Li H, Zacuto MJ.Synthesis of the HCV protease inhibitor Vaniprevir (MK-7009) using ring-closing metathesis strategy.J Org Chem. 2012 Apr 20;77(8):3820-8. Epub 2012 Apr 10.
A highly efficient synthesis of Vaniprevir (MK-7009) has been accomplished in nine linear steps and 55% overall yield. The key features of this synthesis include a cost-effective synthesis of the isoindoline subunit and efficient construction of the 20-membered macrocyclic core of Vaniprevir (MK-7009) utilizing ring-closing metathesis technology. A high-performing ring-closing metathesis protocol has been achieved by simultaneous slow addition of the ruthenium catalyst (0.2 mol %) and the diene substrate at a concentration of 0.13 M.
5 . Liverton, Nigel J.; Carroll, Steven S.; Di Muzio, Jillian;.MK-7009, a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2009), Volume Date 2010, 54(1), 305-311.
The administration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitors to patients with chronic HCV infections has demonstrated that they have dramatic antiviral effects and that compounds acting via this mechanism are likely to form a key component of future anti-HCV therapy. We report here on the preclinical profile of MK-7009, an inhibitor of genotype 1a and 1b proteases at subnanomolar concentrations with modestly shifted potency against genotype 2a and 2b proteases at low nanomolar concentrations. Potent activity was also observed in a cell-based HCV replicon assay in the presence of added human serum (50%). In multiple species evaluated in preclinical studies, the MK-7009 concentrati...