1. Cancer
  2. Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (CIT) is a type of biological therapy, aiming to improve anti-tumor immune responses with fewer off-target effects than chemotherapy. Several types of immunotherapy include: oncolytic virus therapies, cancer vaccines, cytokine therapies, adoptive cell transfer (ACT), and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In particular, ICIs and ACT have obtained immense clinical response, but their efficacy varies from person to person. Immune cells can be harnessed to eliminate tumor cells, such as T cells, B cells, NK cells, and myeloid cells. T cells have potent tumor-killing capability, therefore, a plethora of cancer immunotherapy research have focused on inducing T-cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. CTLA-4 and PD-1 are found on the cell surface of T cells as co-inhibitory receptors. The breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy results from the identification and subsequent targeting of checkpoint mechanisms in T cells with monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4 and programmed death-ligand 1/programmed death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1).

Several types of cancers (e.g., melanoma, mismatch repair-deficient cancers, bladder cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer) have achieved significant clinical responses in T-cell checkpoint blockade therapies. However, single-mode immunotherapy faces challenges such as low immune response, low tumor infiltration, and complex immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Recently, combined therapies based on tumor immunity have received extensive attention in the research of enhancing tumor cells immunogenicity and inhibiting their growth. For example, anti CTLA-4 and PD-1, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) combined with chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic drugs and kinase inhibitors.

Cancer Immunotherapy Related Products (5774):

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-100579
    Ferrostatin-1 347174-05-4 99.96%
    Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), a potent and selective ferroptosis inhibitor, suppresses Erastin-induced ferroptosis in HT-1080 cells (EC50=60 nM). Ferrostatin-1, a synthetic antioxidant, acts via a reductive mechanism to prevent damage to membrane lipids and thereby inhibits cell death. Ferrostatin-1 exhibits antifungal activity.
    Ferrostatin-1
  • HY-10219
    Rapamycin 53123-88-9 99.94%
    Rapamycin (Sirolimus; AY 22989) is a potent and specific mTOR inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.1 nM in HEK293 cells. Rapamycin binds to FKBP12 and specifically acts as an allosteric inhibitor of mTORC1. Rapamycin is an autophagy activator, an immunosuppressant.
    Rapamycin
  • HY-19312
    3-Methyladenine 5142-23-4 99.91%
    3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a PI3K inhibitor. 3-Methyladenine is a widely used inhibitor of autophagy via its inhibitory effect on class III PI3K.
    3-Methyladenine
  • HY-17589A
    Chloroquine 54-05-7 99.82%
    Chloroquine is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine is an autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs) inhibitor. Chloroquine is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro (EC50=1.13 μM).
    Chloroquine
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride 25316-40-9 99.90%
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy.
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1 88899-55-2 99.43%
    Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with IC50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis.
    Bafilomycin A1
  • HY-13757A
    Tamoxifen 10540-29-1 99.92%
    Tamoxifen (ICI 47699) is an orally active, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which blocks estrogen action in breast cells and can activate estrogen activity in other cells, such as bone, liver, and uterine cells. Tamoxifen is a potent Hsp90 activator and enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen also potent inhibits infectious EBOV Zaire and Marburg (MARV) with IC50 of 0.1 µM and 1.8 µM, respectively. Tamoxifen activates autophagy and induces apoptosis. Tamoxifen also can induce gene knockout of CreER(T2) transgenic mouse.
    Tamoxifen
  • HY-14648
    Dexamethasone 50-02-2 99.86%
    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, apoptosis inducer, and common disease inducer in experimental animals, constructing models of muscle atrophy, hypertension, and depression. Dexamethasone can inhibit the production of inflammatory miRNA-155 exosomes in macrophages and significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory factors in neutrophils and monocytes. Dexamethasone also has potential for use in COVID-19 research.
    Dexamethasone
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine 616-91-1 ≥98.0%
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis. Acetylcysteine also has anti-influenza virus activities.
    Acetylcysteine
  • HY-13948
    Angiotensin II human 4474-91-3 99.96%
    Angiotensin II (Angiotensin II) is a vasoconstrictor and a major bioactive peptide of the renin/angiotensin system. Angiotensin II human plays a central role in regulating human blood pressure, which is mainly mediated by interactions between Angiotensin II and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R). Angiotensin II human stimulates sympathetic nervous stimulation, increases aldosterone biosynthesis and renal actions. Angiotensin II human induces growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, increases collagen type I and III synthesis in fibroblasts, leading to thickening of the vascular wall and myocardium, and fibrosis. Angiotensin II human also induces apoptosis. Angiotensin II induces capillary formation from endothelial cells via the LOX-1 dependent redox-sensitive pathway.
    Angiotensin II human
  • HY-13966
    2-Deoxy-D-glucose 154-17-6 99.93%
    2-Deoxy-D-glucose is a glucose analog that acts as a competitive inhibitor of glucose metabolism, inhibiting glycolysis via its actions on hexokinase.
    2-Deoxy-D-glucose
  • HY-15141
    Staurosporine 62996-74-1 99.98%
    Staurosporine is a potent, ATP-competitive and non-selective inhibitor of protein kinases with IC50s of 6 nM, 15 nM, 2 nM, and 3 nM for PKC, PKA, c-Fgr, and Phosphorylase kinase respectively. Staurosporine also inhibits TAOK2 with an IC50 of 3 μM. Staurosporine is an apoptosis inducer.
    Staurosporine
  • HY-90006
    5-Fluorouracil 51-21-8 99.86%
    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an analogue of uracil and a potent antitumor agent. 5-Fluorouracil affects pyrimidine synthesis by inhibiting thymidylate synthetase thus depleting intracellular dTTP pools. 5-Fluorouracil induces apoptosis and can be used as a chemical sensitizer. 5-Fluorouracil also inhibits HIV.
    5-Fluorouracil
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib 179324-69-7 99.97%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is a reversible and selective proteasome inhibitor, and potently inhibits 20S proteasome (Ki=0.6 nM) by targeting a threonine residue. Bortezomib disrupts the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits NF-κB. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor anticancer agent. Anti-cancer activity.
    Bortezomib
  • HY-B0988
    Deferoxamine mesylate 138-14-7 99.86%
    Deferoxamine mesylate (Deferoxamine B mesylate) is an iron chelator (binds to Fe(III) and many other metal cations), is widely used to reduce iron accumulation and deposition in tissues. Deferoxamine mesylate upregulates HIF-1α levels with good antioxidant activity. Deferoxamine mesylate also shows anti-proliferative activity, can induce apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. Deferoxamine mesylate can be used in studies of diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases as well as anti-cancer and anti-COVID-19.
    Deferoxamine mesylate
  • HY-15760
    Necrostatin-1 4311-88-0 99.89%
    Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a potent and cross the blood-brain barrier necroptosis inhibitor with an EC50 of 490 nM in Jurkat cells. Necrostatin-1 inhibits RIP1 kinase (EC50=182 nM). Necrostatin-1 is also an IDO inhibitor.
    Necrostatin-1
  • HY-D1055
    MitoSOX Red 1003197-00-9
    MitoSOX Red is a live cell fluorescent probe that specifically targets mitochondria and is cell membrane permeable. MitoSOX Red enters mitochondria and is oxidized by superoxide but not by other ROS or RNS generating systems. The oxidized MitoSOX Red then binds to nucleic acids in mitochondria/nucleus, producing strong red fluorescence. MitoSOX Red can be used as a fluorescent indicator to specifically detect superoxide. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) can prevent the oxidation of MitoSOX Red.
    Excitation/emission wavelength: 510/580 nm.
    MitoSOX Red
  • HY-17364
    Temozolomide 85622-93-1 99.98%
    Temozolomide (NSC 362856) is an oral active DNA alkylating agent that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Temozolomide is also a proautophagic and proapoptotic agent. Temozolomide is effective against tumor cells that are characterized by low levels of O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (OGAT) and a functional mismatch repair system. Temozolomide has antitumor and antiangiogenic effects.
    Temozolomide
  • HY-17026
    Gemcitabine 95058-81-4 99.92%
    Gemcitabine (LY 188011) is a pyrimidine nucleoside analog antimetabolite and an antineoplastic agent. Gemcitabine inhibits DNA synthesis and repair, resulting in autophagyand apoptosis.
    Gemcitabine
  • HY-12040
    Elesclomol 488832-69-5 99.80%
    Elesclomol (STA-4783) is a potent copper ionophore and promotes copper-dependent cell death (cuproptosis). Elesclomol specifically binds ferredoxin 1 (FDX1) α2/α3 helices and β5 strand. Elesclomol inhibits FDX1-mediated Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. Elesclomol is an oxidative stress inducer that induces cancer cell apoptosis. Elesclomol is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer. Elesclomol can be used for Menkes and associated disorders of hereditary copper deficiency research.
    Elesclomol