1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Immunology/Inflammation
    Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
    NF-κB
  3. Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. Cellular ROS are generated endogenously during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion.

ROS also activates MAPK pathways by the direct inhibition of MAPK phosphatases. Through PTEN, the PI3K pathway is subject to reversible redox regulation by ROS generated by growth factor stimulation. The activation of autophagy may be a cellular defense mechanism in response to ROS.

Reactive Oxygen Species Related Products (505):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis. Acetylcysteine also has anti-influenza virus activities.
  • HY-B0988
    Deferoxamine mesylate
    Inhibitor 99.86%
    Deferoxamine mesylate (Deferoxamine B mesylate) is an iron chelator (binds to Fe(III) and many other metal cations), is widely used to reduce iron accumulation and deposition in tissues. Deferoxamine mesylate upregulates HIF-1α levels with good antioxidant activity. Deferoxamine mesylate also shows anti-proliferative activity, can induce apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. Deferoxamine mesylate can be used in studies of diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases as well as anti-cancer and anti-COVID-19.
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA
    99.82%
    H2DCFDA (DCFH-DA) is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Ex/Em=488/525 nm).
  • HY-18085
    Quercetin
    Inhibitor 98.02%
    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively.
  • HY-12040
    Elesclomol
    Activator 99.80%
    Elesclomol (STA-4783) is a potent copper ionophore and promotes copper-dependent cell death (cuproptosis). Elesclomol specifically binds ferredoxin 1 (FDX1) α2/α3 helices and β5 strand. Elesclomol inhibits FDX1-mediated Fe-S cluster biosynthesis. Elesclomol is an oxidative stress inducer that induces cancer cell apoptosis. Elesclomol is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer. Elesclomol can be used for Menkes and associated disorders of hereditary copper deficiency research.
  • HY-P1934A
    Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro)
    Inhibitor 99.01%
    Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro), isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas alcaligenes cell-free culture supernatants is an antifungal cyclic dipeptide. Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) inhibits IFN-β production by interfering with retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) activation. Cyclo(L-Phe-L-Pro) exhibits free-radical scavenging activity with the IC50 of 24 µM in the DPPH assay.
  • HY-W016412
    Coenzyme Q0
    Inducer ≥99.0%
    Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) is a potent, oral active ubiquinone compound can be derived from Antrodia cinnamomea. Coenzyme Q0 induces apoptosis and autophagy, suppresses of HER-2/AKT/mTOR signaling to potentiate the apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms. Coenzyme Q0 regulates NFκB/AP-1 activation and enhances Nrf2 stabilization in attenuation of inflammation and redox imbalance. Coenzyme Q0 has anti-angiogenic activity through downregulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and upregulation of HO-1 signaling.
  • HY-126793
    2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate
    2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) is a cell-permeable fluorescent probe. 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescein diacetate can be used to detect the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and for assessing the overall oxidative stress in toxicological phenomenon.
  • HY-100116A
    Mitoquinone mesylate
    98.45%
    Mitoquinone mesylate is a TPP-based, mitochondrially targeted antioxidant in order to protect against oxidative damage.
  • HY-B0166
    L-Ascorbic acid
    99.74%
    L-Ascorbic acid (L-Ascorbate), an electron donor, is an endogenous antioxidant agent. L-Ascorbic acid inhibits selectively Cav3.2 channels with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. L-Ascorbic acid is also a collagen deposition enhancer and an elastogenesis inhibitor. L-Ascorbic acid exhibits anti-cancer effects through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and selective damage to cancer cells.
  • HY-112879
    Mito-TEMPO
    Inhibitor 98.35%
    Mito-TEMPO is a mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase mimetic with superoxide and alkyl radical scavenging properties.
  • HY-D0187
    L-Glutathione reduced
    99.83%
    L-Glutathione reduced (GSH; γ-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is an endogenous antioxidant and is capable of scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals.
  • HY-100965
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride
    Inhibitor 99.39%
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride is a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor and also functions as a TRPA1 activator with an EC50 of 1 to 3 μM. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species.
  • HY-101445
    Trolox
    99.87%
    Trolox is an analogue of vitamin E with a powerful antioxidant effect. Trolox is also a powerful inhibitor of membrane damage.
  • HY-16214
    FX-11
    Inducer 98.44%
    FX-11 is a potent, selective, reversible and competitive lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) specific inhibitor, with a Ki of 8 μM. FX-11 can effectively activate PKM2 (pyruvate kinase M2). FX-11 reduces ATP levels and induces oxidative stress, ROS production and cell death. FX-11 shows antitumor activity in lymphoma and pancreatic cancer xenografts.
  • HY-17363
    Dimethyl fumarate
    Activator 99.91%
    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an orally active and brain-penetrant Nrf2 activator and induces upregulation of antioxidant gene expression. Dimethyl fumarate induces necroptosis in colon cancer cells through GSH depletion/ROS increase/MAPKs activation pathway, and also induces cell autophagy. Dimethyl fumarate can be used for multiple sclerosis research.
  • HY-18258
    Berberine chloride
    Activator 99.66%
    Berberine chloride is an alkaloid that acts as an antibiotic. Berberine chloride induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibits DNA topoisomerase. Antineoplastic properties.
  • HY-101193
    Zinc Protoporphyrin
    98.04%
    Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is an orally active and competitive heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor and markedly attenuates the protective effects of Phloroglucinol (PG) against H2O2. Zinc Protoporphyrin is used as a screening marker of iron deficiency in individual pregnant women and children, but also to assess population iron status in combination with haemoglobin concentration. Zinc Protoporphyrin has anti-cancer activity.
  • HY-18950
    GSK2795039
    Inhibitor 99.71%
    GSK2795039 is a NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor with a mean pIC50 of 6 in different cell-free assays. GSK2795039 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH consumption. GSK2795039 reduces apoptosis.
  • HY-D0079
    Dihydroethidium
    Dihydroethidium(Hydroethidine; PD-MY 003) is a superoxide indicator; exhibits blue-fluorescence in the cytosol until oxidized, where it intercalates within the cell's DNA, staining its nucleus a bright fluorescent red (Ex/Em=518/616 nm).