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(CHIR 090; CHIR090)
CHIR-090 Chemical Structure
|Product name: CHIR-090|
|Cat. No.: HY-15460|
CHIR-090 is a potent LpxC inhibitor, displays two-step time-dependent inhibition and kills a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens as effectively as ciprofloxacin or tobramycin.
Target: LpxC; Antibacterial; LpxC
The UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxyacyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase LpxC is an essential enzyme of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria and a promising antibiotic target.
|M.Wt||437.49||Storage||Please store the product under the recommended conditions in the Certificate of Analysis.|
|Solvent & Solubility||
DMSO: ≥ 30 mg/mL
|1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||2.2858 mL||11.4288 mL||22.8577 mL|
|5 mM||0.4572 mL||2.2858 mL||4.5715 mL|
|10 mM||0.2286 mL||1.1429 mL||2.2858 mL|
. Barb AW, McClerren AL, Snehelatha K et al. Inhibition of lipid A biosynthesis as the primary mechanism of CHIR-090 antibiotic activity in Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 2007 Mar 27;46(12):3793-802.
The deacetylation of UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-3-O-acyl-GlcNAc) by LpxC is the committed reaction of lipid A biosynthesis. CHIR-090, a novel N-aroyl-l-threonine hydroxamic acid, is a potent, slow, tight-binding inhibitor of the LpxC deacetylase from the hyperthermophile Aquifex aeolicus, and it has excellent antibiotic activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, as judged by disk diffusion assays. We now report that CHIR-090 is also a two-step slow, tight-binding inhibitor of E. coli LpxC with Ki = 4.0 nM, Ki* = 0.5 nM, k5 = 1.9 min-1, and k6 = 0.18 min-1. CHIR-090 at low nanomolar levels inhibits LpxC orthologues from diverse Gram-negative pathogens, including P. aeruginosa, Neisseria meningitidis, and Helicobacter pylori. In contrast, CHIR-090 is a relatively weak competitive and conventional inhibitor (lacking slow, tight-binding kinetics) of LpxC from Rhizobium leguminosarum (Ki = 340 nM), a Gram-negative plant endosymbiont that is resistant to this compound. The KM (4.8 microM) and the kcat (1.7 s-1) of R. leguminosarum LpxC with UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine as the substrate are similar to values reported for E. coli LpxC. R. leguminosarum LpxC therefore provides a useful control for validating LpxC as the primary target of CHIR-090 in vivo. An E. coli construct in which the chromosomal lpxC gene is replaced by R. leguminosarum lpxC is resistant to CHIR-090 up to 100 microg/mL, or 400 times above the minimal inhibitory concentration for wild-type E. coli. Given its relatively broad spectrum and potency against diverse Gram-negative pathogens, CHIR-090 is an excellent lead for the further development of new antibiotics targeting the lipid A pathway.
. Barb AW, Jiang L, Raetz CR, Zhou P. Structure of the deacetylase LpxC bound to the antibiotic CHIR-090: Time-dependent inhibition and specificity in ligand binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Nov 20;104(47):18433-8.
The UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxyacyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase LpxC is an essential enzyme of lipid A biosynthesis in Gram-negative bacteria and a promising antibiotic target. CHIR-090, the most potent LpxC inhibitor discovered to date, displays two-step time-dependent inhibition and kills a wide range of Gram-negative pathogens as effectively as ciprofloxacin or tobramycin. In this study, we report the solution structure of the LpxC-CHIR-090 complex. CHIR-090 exploits conserved features of LpxC that are critical for catalysis, including the hydrophobic passage and essential active-site residues. CHIR-090 is adjacent to, but does not occupy, the UDP-binding pocket of LpxC, suggesting that a fragment-based approach may facilitate further optimization of LpxC inhibitors. Additionally, we identified key residues in the Insert II hydrophobic passage that modulate time-dependent inhibition and CHIR-090 resistance. CHIR-090 shares a similar, although previously unrecognized, chemical scaffold with other small-molecule antibiotics such as L-161,240 targeting LpxC, and provides a template for understanding the binding mode of these inhibitors. Consistent with this model, we provide evidence that L-161,240 also occupies the hydrophobic passage.
. Cole KE, Gattis SG, Angell HD et al. Structure of the metal-dependent deacetylase LpxC from Yersinia enterocolitica complexed with the potent inhibitor CHIR-090. Biochemistry. 2011 Jan 18;50(2):258-65.
The first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by UDP-(3-O-((R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl))-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase, a metal-dependent deacetylase also known as LpxC. Because lipid A is essential for bacterial viability, the inhibition of LpxC is an appealing therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here we report the 1.79 ? resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeLpxC) complexed with the potent hydroxamate inhibitor CHIR-090. This enzyme is a nearly identical orthologue of LpxC from Yersinia pestis (99.7% sequence identity), the pathogen that causes bubonic plague. Similar to the inhibition of LpxC from Escherichia coli, CHIR-090 inhibits YeLpxC via a two-step slow, tight-binding mechanism with an apparent K(i) of 0.54 ± 0.14 nM followed by conversion of the E·I to E·I* species with a rate constant of 0.11 ± 0.01 min(-1). The structure of the LpxC complex with CHIR-090 shows that the inhibitor hydroxamate group chelates the active site zinc ion, and the "tail" of the inhibitor binds in the hydrophobic tunnel in the active site. This hydrophobic tunnel is framed by a βαβ subdomain that exhibits significant conformational flexibility as it accommodates inhibitor binding. CHIR-090 displays a 27 mm zone of inhibition against Y. enterocolitica in a Kirby-Bauer antibiotic assay, which is comparable to its reported activity against other Gram-negative species including E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study demonstrates that the inhibition of LpxC should be explored as a potential therapeutic and/or prophylatic response to infection by weaponized Yersinia species.
. Caughlan RE, Jones AK, Delucia AM et al. Mechanisms decreasing in vitro susceptibility to the LpxC inhibitor CHIR-090 in the gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jan;56(1):17-27.
Testing P. aeruginosa efflux pump mutants showed that the LpxC inhibitor CHIR-090 is a substrate for MexAB-OprM, MexCD-OprJ, and MexEF-OprN. Utilizing P. aeruginosa PAO1 with a chromosomal mexC::luxCDABE fusion, luminescent mutants arose on medium containing 4 μg/ml CHIR-090, indicating upregulation of MexCD-OprJ. These mutants were less susceptible to CHIR-090 (MIC, 4 μg/ml) and had mutations in the mexCD-oprJ repressor gene nfxB. Nonluminescent mutants (MIC, 4 μg/ml) that had mutations in the mexAB-oprM regulator gene mexR were also observed. Plating the clinical isolate K2153 on 4 μg/ml CHIR-090 selected mutants with alterations in mexS (immediately upstream of mexT), which upregulates MexEF-OprN. A mutant altered in the putative1ribosomal binding site (RBS) upstream of lpxC and overexpressing LpxC was selected on a related LpxC inhibitor and exhibited reduced susceptibility to CHIR-090. Overexpression of LpxC from a plasmid reduced susceptibility to CHIR-090, and introduction of the altered RBS in this construct further increased expression of LpxC and decreased susceptibility to CHIR-090. Using a mutS (hypermutator) strain, a mutant with an altered lpxC target gene (LpxC L18V) was also selected. Purified LpxC L18V had activity similar to that of wild-type LpxC in an in vitro assay but had reduced inhibition by CHIR-090. Finally, an additional class of mutant, typified by an extreme growth defect, was identified. These mutants had mutations in fabG, indicating that alteration in fatty acid synthesis conferred resistance to LpxC inhibitors. Passaging experiments showed progressive decreases in susceptibility to CHIR-090. Therefore, P. aeruginosa can employ several strategies to reduce susceptibility to CHIR-090 in vitro.
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