1. Dye Reagents

Dye Reagents

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected. The solvatochromic nature of Nile Red also offers the possibility of plastic categorisation based on surface polarity characteristics of identified particles. This article details the development of this staining method and its initial cross-validation by comparison with infrared (IR) microscopy. Microplastics of different sizes could be detected and counted in marine sediment samples. The fluorescence staining identified the same particles as those found by scanning a filter area with IR-microscopy.

Cyanine dyes can be used to quantify the amount of dsDNA within a sample. The linearity of fluorescence, as function of DNA amount of six dyes, is obtained by measuring the fluorescence intensity at the optimal excitation and emission maxima.

Dye Reagents (273):

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA 4091-99-0 99.82%
    H2DCFDA is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
    H2DCFDA
  • HY-15534
    JC-1 3520-43-2 99.46%
    JC-1 is a fluorescent lipophilic carbocyanine dye used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential.
    JC-1
  • HY-D0814
    DAPI dihydrochloride 28718-90-3 >98.0%
    DAPI dihydrochloride (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) is a fluorescent stain by binding in the minor grove of A-T rich sequences of DNA.
    DAPI dihydrochloride
  • HY-D0938
    CFSE 150347-59-4
    CFSE is a fluorescent dye which can track the cell division.
    CFSE
  • HY-12591A
    D-Luciferin 2591-17-5 98.81%
    D-luciferin is the natural substrate of luciferases that catalyze the production of light in bioluminescent insects.
    D-Luciferin
  • HY-D0815
    Propidium Iodide 25535-16-4 >98.0%
    Propidium Iodide is a red-fluorescent dye that can be used to stain cells.
    Propidium Iodide
  • HY-D0718
    Nile Red 7385-67-3
    Nile Red is a strongly fluorescent stain in the presence of a hydrophobic environment for the detection of intracellular lipid droplets.
    Nile Red
  • HY-12591B
    D-Luciferin potassium salt 115144-35-9 99.20%
    D-Luciferin potassium salt is the substrate of luciferases that catalyze the production of light in bioluminescent insects.
    D-Luciferin potassium salt
  • HY-D0041
    Calcein-AM 148504-34-1 >98.0%
    Calcein-AM is cell-permeable fluorescent dye used to determine the cell viability.
    Calcein-AM
  • HY-66019
    FITC 3326-32-7 >98.0%
    FITC is a derivative of fluorescein for the labeling of amines.
    FITC
  • HY-111382
    Diphenylterazine 344940-63-2
    Diphenylterazine is a bioluminescence agent.
    Diphenylterazine
  • HY-D0913
    1-Methyl-7-nitroisatoic anhydride 73043-80-8 >98.0%
    1-methyl-7-nitroisatoic anhydride is a reagent that detects local nucleotide flexibility, for probing 2'-hydroxyl reactivity.
    1-Methyl-7-nitroisatoic anhydride
  • HY-15559A
    Hoechst 33342 trihydrochloride 875756-97-1 99.87%
    Hoechst 33342 trihydrochloride is a membrane permeant blue fluorescent DNA stain.
    Hoechst 33342 trihydrochloride
  • HY-D0218
    Thioflavin T 2390-54-7 98.72%
    Thioflavin T is a cationic Benzothiazole dye that shows enhanced fluorescence upon binding to amyloid in tissue sections.
    Thioflavin T
  • HY-D0711
    Cardiogreen 3599-32-4 >98.0%
    Cardiogreen is a low toxicic fluorescent agent that has been widely used in medical diagnostics, such as determining cardiac output, hepatic function, and liver blood flow, and for ophthalmic angiography.
    Cardiogreen
  • HY-D0083
    DiI 41085-99-8 99.92%
    DiI (DiIC18(3)) is a lipophilic membrane dye that diffuses laterally to stain the entire cell. DiI is excited to emit orange-red fluorescence. The fluorescence is weak in water but strong and photostable when incorporated into membranes.
    DiI
  • HY-D0079
    Dihydroethidium 104821-25-2 99.77%
    Dihydroethidium(Hydroethidine; PD-MY 003) is a superoxide indicator; exhibits blue-fluorescence in the cytosol until oxidized, where it intercalates within the cell's DNA, staining its nucleus a bright fluorescent red.
    Dihydroethidium
  • HY-D0985A
    TMRE 115532-52-0
    TMRE is a mitochondria specific dye (λex=550 nm, λem=575 nm).
    TMRE
  • HY-15928
    PNPP 4264-83-9 99.85%
    PNPP is a non-proteinaceous chromogenic substrate for alkaline and acid phosphatases used in ELISA and conventional spectrophotometric assays.
    PNPP
  • HY-D0098
    Fluorescein-5-maleimide 75350-46-8 98.00%
    Fluorescein-5-maleimide is a fluorescent thiol-reactive dye used to conjugate fluorescein to proteins (excitation: 494 nm, emission: 519 nm).
    Fluorescein-5-maleimide