1. Dye Reagents

Dye Reagents

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected. The solvatochromic nature of Nile Red also offers the possibility of plastic categorisation based on surface polarity characteristics of identified particles. This article details the development of this staining method and its initial cross-validation by comparison with infrared (IR) microscopy. Microplastics of different sizes could be detected and counted in marine sediment samples. The fluorescence staining identified the same particles as those found by scanning a filter area with IR-microscopy.

Cyanine dyes can be used to quantify the amount of dsDNA within a sample. The linearity of fluorescence, as function of DNA amount of six dyes, is obtained by measuring the fluorescence intensity at the optimal excitation and emission maxima.

Dye Reagents (1001):

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-15924
    Thiazolyl Blue 298-93-1 ≥98.0%
    Thiazolyl Blue (MTT) is a cell-permeable and positively charged tetrazolium dye that is used to detect reductive metabolism in cells. Thiazolyl Blue is taken up by cells through the plasma membrane and then reduced to formazan by intracellular NAD(P)H-oxidoreductases. Thiazolyl Blue is frequently used in colorimetric assays to measure cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis.
    Thiazolyl Blue
  • HY-12591B
    D-Luciferin potassium 115144-35-9 ≥98.0%
    D-luciferin is the natural substrate of the enzyme luciferase (Luc) that catalyzes the production of the typical yellowgreen light of fireflies. The 560 nm chemiluminescence from this reaction peaks within seconds, with light output that is proportional to luciferase concentration when the substrate luciferin is present in excess. The luciferase (luc) gene is a popular reporter gene for research and drug screening. Chemiluminescent techniques are virtually background-free, making the luc reporter gene ideal for detecting low-level gene expression. As little as 0.02 pg of luciferase can be reliably measured in a standard scintillation counter. In addition to its role as a reporter of gene expression, luciferase is commonly used in an extremely sensitive assay for ATP. We offer the firefly luciferase (HY-P1004), luciferin free acid (HY-12591A), as well as its water-soluble sodium salts (HY-12591) and potassium salts (HY-12591B).
    D-Luciferin potassium
  • HY-12591A
    D-Luciferin 2591-17-5 99.87%
    D-luciferin is the natural substrate of the enzyme luciferase (Luc) that catalyzes the production of the typical yellowgreen light of fireflies. The 560 nm chemiluminescence from this reaction peaks within seconds, with light output that is proportional to luciferase concentration when the substrate luciferin is present in excess. The luciferase (luc) gene is a popular reporter gene for research and drug screening. Chemiluminescent techniques are virtually background-free, making the luc reporter gene ideal for detecting low-level gene expression. As little as 0.02 pg of luciferase can be reliably measured in a standard scintillation counter. In addition to its role as a reporter of gene expression, luciferase is commonly used in an extremely sensitive assay for ATP. We offer the firefly luciferase (HY-P1004), luciferin free acid (HY-12591A), as well as its water-soluble sodium salts (HY-12591) and potassium salts (HY-12591B).
    D-Luciferin
  • HY-12591
    D-Luciferin sodium 103404-75-7 ≥98.0%
    D-luciferin is the natural substrate of the enzyme luciferase (Luc) that catalyzes the production of the typical yellowgreen light of fireflies. The 560 nm chemiluminescence from this reaction peaks within seconds, with light output that is proportional to luciferase concentration when the substrate luciferin is present in excess. The luciferase (luc) gene is a popular reporter gene for research and drug screening. Chemiluminescent techniques are virtually background-free, making the luc reporter gene ideal for detecting low-level gene expression. As little as 0.02 pg of luciferase can be reliably measured in a standard scintillation counter. In addition to its role as a reporter of gene expression, luciferase is commonly used in an extremely sensitive assay for ATP. We offer the firefly luciferase (HY-P1004), luciferin free acid (HY-12591A), as well as its water-soluble sodium salts (HY-12591) and potassium salts (HY-12591B).
    D-Luciferin sodium
  • HY-D0831
    WST-8 193149-74-5 ≥98.0%
    WST-8 is a water-soluble tetrazolium dye, WST-8 enhances sensitivity of the WST-8-based assay over the conventional MTS-based assay.
    WST-8
  • HY-112641A
    AkaLumine hydrochloride 2558205-28-8 ≥98.0%
    AkaLumine hydrochloride is a luciferin analogue, with a Km of 2.06 μM for recombinant Fluc protein.
    AkaLumine hydrochloride
  • HY-15934
    X-GAL 7240-90-6 99.88%
    X-GAL is a widely used chromogenic β-galactosidase substrate. β-galactosidase cleaves X-gal and produce an insoluble blue compound, which is detectable.
    X-GAL
  • HY-15902
    ABTS diammonium salt 30931-67-0 99.61%
    ABTS diammonium salt is a substrate for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate.
    ABTS diammonium salt
  • HY-111653
    CycLuc1 1247879-16-8 98.16%
    CycLuc1 is a brain penetrant luciferase substrate.
    CycLuc1
  • HY-15925
    Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride 298-83-9 ≥98.0%
    Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) is a substrate for dehydrogenases; is used with the alkaline phosphatase substrate 5-Bromo-4-Chloro-3-Indolyl Phosphate (BCIP) in western blotting and immunohistological staining procedures.
    Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride
  • HY-15928
    PNPP disodium 4264-83-9 ≥99.0%
    PNPP (Para-nitrophenyl phosphate) disodium is a non-proteinaceous chromogenic substrate for alkaline and acid phosphatases used in ELISA and conventional spectrophotometric assays.
    PNPP disodium
  • HY-P0019A
    Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC acetate 2070009-61-7 99.88%
    Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC acetate is a thrombin-specific fluorogenic substrate for testing of thrombin generation in PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP).
    Z-Gly-Gly-Arg-AMC acetate
  • HY-101895
    Fluorescein di(β-D-galactopyranoside) 17817-20-8 ≥98.0%
    Fluorescein di(β-D-galactopyranoside) is a fluorogenic substrate for β-galactosidase (λex=485 nm, λem=535 nm).
    Fluorescein di(β-D-galactopyranoside)
  • HY-N0116
    Hematoxylin 517-28-2 ≥98.0%
    Hematoxylin (Natural Black 1), a naturally occurring flavonoid compound derived from Caesalpinia sappan Linn.. Hematoxylin is a nuclear stain in histology and is also a potent Aβ42 fibrillogenesis inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.6 µM.
    Hematoxylin
  • HY-D0145
    7-Ethoxyresorufin 5725-91-7 98.96%
    7-Ethoxyresorufin (Resorufin ethyl ether) is a fluorometric substrate and competitive inhibitor of cytochrome P450, especially CYP1A1. 7-Ethoxyresorufin also inhibits NO synthase.
    7-Ethoxyresorufin
  • HY-P1003
    Ac-DEVD-AMC 169332-61-0 99.93%
    Ac-DEVD-AMC is the Caspase-3 fluorescent substrate.
    Ac-DEVD-AMC
  • HY-15930
    TMB 54827-17-7 99.83%
    TMB (BM blue) is a chromogenic substrate used in staining procedures in immunohistochemistry as well as being a visualising reagent used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
    TMB
  • HY-D0994
    4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate 3368-04-5 99.96%
    4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP), an anionic organophosphate, is a acid and alkaline phosphatase fluorogenic substrate. 4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate is also a nerve agent simulant.
    4-Methylumbelliferyl phosphate
  • HY-D0995
    7-Methyl-6-thioguanosine 55727-10-1 ≥99.0%
    7-Methyl-6-thioguanosine (MESG) is a chromophoric substrate which can be used for the quantitation of inorganic phosphate. 7-Methyl-6-thioguanosine is also used to determine the activity of purine nucleoside phosphorylase.
    7-Methyl-6-thioguanosine
  • HY-129096
    IDT307 1141-41-9 99.10%
    IDT307, an analog of the organic cation MPP+, is a specific fluorescent substrate for DAT (fluorescent substrate APP+).
    IDT307