1. Dye Reagents

Dye Reagents

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected. The solvatochromic nature of Nile Red also offers the possibility of plastic categorisation based on surface polarity characteristics of identified particles. This article details the development of this staining method and its initial cross-validation by comparison with infrared (IR) microscopy. Microplastics of different sizes could be detected and counted in marine sediment samples. The fluorescence staining identified the same particles as those found by scanning a filter area with IR-microscopy.

Cyanine dyes can be used to quantify the amount of dsDNA within a sample. The linearity of fluorescence, as function of DNA amount of six dyes, is obtained by measuring the fluorescence intensity at the optimal excitation and emission maxima.

Dye Reagents (342):

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA 4091-99-0 99.82%
    H2DCFDA (DCFH-DA) is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • HY-15534
    JC-1 3520-43-2 99.46%
    JC-1 (CBIC2) is a fluorescent lipophilic carbocyanine dye used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential. JC-1 forms complexes known as J-aggregates at high ΔΨm. Aggregates of JC-1 emit an orange-red fluorescence (Ex/Em=585/590 nm). While in cells with low ΔΨm, JC-1 remains in the monomeric form. JC-1 monomers emit a green fluorescence (Ex/Em=510/527 nm).
  • HY-D0938
    CFSE 150347-59-4 98.26%
    CFSE is a fluorescent dye which can track the cell division.
  • HY-D0814
    DAPI dihydrochloride 28718-90-3 >98.0%
    DAPI dihydrochloride (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) is a fluorescent stain by binding in the minor grove of A-T rich sequences of DNA.
    DAPI dihydrochloride
  • HY-D0718
    Nile Red 7385-67-3 98.02%
    Nile Red is a strongly fluorescent stain in the presence of a hydrophobic environment for the detection of intracellular lipid droplets.
    Nile Red
  • HY-D0815
    Propidium Iodide 25535-16-4 >98.0%
    Propidium Iodide is a red-fluorescent dye that can be used to stain cells.
    Propidium Iodide
  • HY-D0041
    Calcein-AM 148504-34-1 >98.0%
    Calcein-AM is cell-permeable fluorescent dye used to determine the cell viability.
  • HY-66019
    FITC 3326-32-7 >98.0%
    FITC is a derivative of fluorescein for the labeling of amines.
  • HY-111382
    Diphenylterazine 344940-63-2 98.06%
    Diphenylterazine is a bioluminescence agent.
  • HY-D0985A
    TMRE 115532-52-0 98.24%
    TMRE is a mitochondria specific dye (λex=550 nm, λem=575 nm).
  • HY-D0083
    DiI 41085-99-8 99.92%
    DiI (DiIC18(3)) is a lipophilic carbocyanine fluorescent dye for membrane labeling. DiI has an absorption maximum at 549 nm and an emission maximum 565 nm. It is mildly fluorescent in aqueous suspension, but becomes bright when bound to cell membrane.
  • HY-128868
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) 60842-46-8
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) is a marker consisting of coupling fluorescein-isothiocyanate to dextran (10 kDa). FITC-Dextran are polysaccharides comprised of varying lengths of branched glucose molecules and can be used to determine solute, ion and protein permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) based on the size of the dextran used.
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000)
  • HY-D0079
    Dihydroethidium 104821-25-2 99.77%
    Dihydroethidium(Hydroethidine; PD-MY 003) is a superoxide indicator; exhibits blue-fluorescence in the cytosol until oxidized, where it intercalates within the cell's DNA, staining its nucleus a bright fluorescent red.
  • HY-D0090
    MQAE 162558-52-3 99.84%
    MQAE is a fluorescent indicator that is quenched via collision with chloride, and is more sensitive and selective than 36Cl and microelectrode-based methods for chloride measurement in cells.
  • HY-101879
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride 65-61-2 99.86%
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride is a cell-permeable fluorescent dye that binds to nucleic acids, resulting in an altered spectral emission.
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride
  • HY-D0816
    Rhodamine 123 62669-70-9 98.17%
    Rhodamine 123 (RH-123; R-22420) is a fluorescent dye (λex=503 nm, λem=527 nm).
    Rhodamine 123
  • HY-D0098
    Fluorescein-5-maleimide 75350-46-8 98.00%
    Fluorescein-5-maleimide is a fluorescent thiol-reactive dye used to conjugate fluorescein to proteins (excitation: 494 nm, emission: 519 nm).
  • HY-D0150
    Thiazole Orange 107091-89-4 99.84%
    Thiazole Orange is a dye for reticulocyte analysis.
    Thiazole Orange
  • HY-116215
    2-NBDG 186689-07-6 98.86%
    2-NBDG is a fluorescent indicator for direct glucose uptake measurement and also is an indicator of cell viability.
  • HY-101883
    BCECF-AM 117464-70-7 >99.0%
    BCECF-AM is a cell membrane permeable compound, widely used as a fluorescent indicator for intracellular pH.