1. Dye Reagents

Dye Reagents

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected. The solvatochromic nature of Nile Red also offers the possibility of plastic categorisation based on surface polarity characteristics of identified particles. This article details the development of this staining method and its initial cross-validation by comparison with infrared (IR) microscopy. Microplastics of different sizes could be detected and counted in marine sediment samples. The fluorescence staining identified the same particles as those found by scanning a filter area with IR-microscopy.

Cyanine dyes can be used to quantify the amount of dsDNA within a sample. The linearity of fluorescence, as function of DNA amount of six dyes, is obtained by measuring the fluorescence intensity at the optimal excitation and emission maxima.

Dye Reagents (1302):

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA 4091-99-0 ≥98.0%
    H2DCFDA (DCFH-DA) is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Ex/Em=488/525 nm).
  • HY-D1055
    MitoSOX Red 1003197-00-9
    MitoSOX Red is a novel fluorescent probe that specifically targets mitochondria in living cells with cell membrane permeability. MitoSOX Red enters the mitochondria, it is oxidized by superoxide, but not by other ROS or RNS generating systems. MitoSOX Red then binds to intramitochondrial nucleic acids, producing strong red fluorescence. MitoSOX Red can be used as a fluorescent indicator to specifically detect superoxide. Additionally, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) prevents the oxidation of MitoSOX Red.
    Excitation/emission wavelength: 396/610 nm.
    MitoSOX Red
  • HY-W090090
    BODIPY 493/503 121207-31-6 ≥99.0%
    BODIPY493/503 is a BODIPY dye. BODIPY dye is a small molecule dye with strong ultraviolet absorption ability, its fluorescence peak is relatively sharp, and the quantum yield is high. They are relatively insensitive to the polarity and pH of the environment and are relatively stable under different physiological conditions. Due to its structural asymmetry, BODIPY derives a variety of structural products. BODIPY lipid droplet dyes can well pass through the cell membrane into the cell, and localize the polar lipids in the cell to specifically stain the lipid droplets, which can be used for labeling of live cells and fixed cells. Maximum excitation/emission wavelength: 493/503 nm.
    BODIPY 493/503
  • HY-D0718
    Nile Red 7385-67-3 98.15%
    Nile red (Nile blue oxazone) is a lipophilic stain. Nile red has environment-sensitive fluorescence. Nile red is intensely fluorescent in a lipid-rich environment while it has minimal fluorescence in aqueous media. Nile red is an excellent vital stain for the detection of intracellular lipid droplets by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytof uorometry. Nile red stains intracellular lipid droplets red. The fluorescence wavelength is 559/635 nm.
    Nile Red
  • HY-15534
    JC-1 3520-43-2 ≥98.0%
    JC-1 (CBIC2) is an ideal fluorescent probe widely used to detect mitochondrial membrane potential. JC-1 accumulates in mitochondria in a potential dependent manner and can be used to detect the membrane potential of cells, tissues or purified mitochondria. In normal mitochondria, JC-1 aggregates in the mitochondrial matrix to form a polymer, which emits strong red fluorescence (Ex=585nm, Em=590nm); When the mitochondrial membrane potential is low, JC-1 cannot aggregate in the matrix of mitochondria and produce green fluorescence (ex=514nm, em=529nm).
  • HY-66019
    FITC 3326-32-7 ≥98.0%
    FITC (Fluorescein Isothiocyanate), is one of the green fluorescein derivatives widely used in biology. FITC has the characteristics of high absorptivity, excellent fluorescence quantum yield and good water solubility. The isothiocyanate group of FITC can be combined with amino, sulfhydryl, imidazole, tyrosyl, carbonyl and other groups on the protein, so as to achieve protein labeling including antibodies and lectins. In addition to its use as a protein marker, FITC can also be used as a fluorescent protein tracer to rapidly identify pathogens by labeling antibodies, or for microsequencing of proteins and peptides (HPLC). The maximum excitation wavelength of FITC is 494 nm. Once excited, it fluoresces yellow-green at a maximum emission wavelength of 520 nm.
  • HY-D0938
    CFDA-SE 150347-59-4
    CFDA-SE is a fluorescent dye that can penetrate the cell membrane. It can react with the free amine group in the cytoskeleton protein inside the cell, and finally form a protein complex with fluorescence. After entering the cell, CFDA-SE locates in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, and the fluorescence staining is strongest in the nucleus. CFDA-SE dye can be uniformly inherited by the cells with cell division and proliferation, and its attenuation is proportional to the number of cell divisions. This phenomenon can be detected and analyzed by flow cytometry under the excitation light of 488 nm, and can be used to detect the proliferation of cells.
  • HY-D0815
    Propidium Iodide 25535-16-4 ≥98.0%
    Propidium Iodide (PI) is a nuclear staining agent that stains DNA. Propidium Iodide is an analogue of ethidine bromide that emits red fluorescence upon embedding in double-stranded DNA. Propidium Iodide cannot pass through living cell membranes, but it can pass through damaged cell membranes to stain the nucleus. Propidium Iodide has a fluorescence wavelength of 493/617 nm and a wavelength of 536/635 nm after Mosaic with DNA. Propidium Iodide is commonly used in the detection of apoptosis (apoptosis) or necrosis (necrosis), and is often used in flow cytometry analysis.
    Propidium Iodide
  • HY-128868A
    FITC-Dextran (MW 4000) 60842-46-8
    FITC-Dextran (MW 4000) is a fluorescent probe for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran (Ex=495 nm; Em=525 nm). FITC-Dextran (MW 4000) can be used as a marker to reveal heat shock-induced cell damage and to study the early and late stages of apoptosis. FITC-Dextran (MW 4000) can also be used for cell permeability studies, such as blood-brain barrier permeability and determination of the extent of blood-brain barrier disruption.
    FITC-Dextran (MW 4000)
  • HY-N6716
    Filipin complex 11078-21-0
    Filipin complex is a potent polyene macrolide antifungal antibiotic. Filipin complex inserts into membranes and sequester cholesterol into complexes and inhibits PRRSV entry. The Filipin complex consists of about 75.8% Filipin III (HY-N6718), 10.8% Filipin IV, 9.1% Filipin II, and 1.2% Filipin I.
    Filipin complex
  • HY-D0814
    DAPI dihydrochloride 28718-90-3 ≥98.0%
    DAPI dihydrochloride is a DAPI dye. DAPI is a fluorescent dye that binds strongly to DNA. It binds to the AT base pair of the double-stranded DNA minor groove, and one DAPI molecule can occupy three base pair positions. The fluorescence intensity of DAPI molecules bound to double-stranded DNA is increased by about 20 times, and it is commonly observed with fluorescence microscopy, and the amount of DNA can be determined based on the intensity of fluorescence. In addition, because DAPI can pass through intact cell membranes, it can be used to stain both live and fixed cells.
    DAPI dihydrochloride
  • HY-D0041
    Calcein-AM 148504-34-1 ≥98.0%
    Calcein AM, has cell membrane permeability and can easily enter the cell. Calcein AM has no fluorescence and is hydrolyzed by endogenous esterase in the cell to produce polar molecule Calcein (Calcein), which has strong negative charge and cannot permeate the cell membrane. Calcein can emit strong green fluorescence, so it is often used with Propidium Iodide for cell viability/virulence detection, excitation/emission wavelength: 494/515 nm.
  • HY-D0079
    Dihydroethidium 104821-25-2
    Dihydroethidium, also known as DHE, is a peroxide indicator. Dihydroethidium penetrates cell membranes to form a fluorescent protein complex with blue fluoresces. After entering the cells, Dihydroethidium is mainly localized in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, and the staining effect is the strongest in the nucleus. Dihydroethidium produces inherent blue fluorescence with a maximum excitation wavelength of 370 nm and a maximum emission wavelength of 420 nm; after dehydrogenation, Dihydroethidium combines with RNA or DNA to produce red fluorescence with a maximum excitation wavelength of 300 nm and a maximum emission wavelength of 610 nm. 535 nm can also be used as the excitation wavelength for actual observation.
  • HY-128868
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) 60842-46-8
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) is a fluorescent probe for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran (Ex=495 nm; Em=525 nm). FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) can be used as a marker to reveal heat shock-induced cell damage and to study the early and late stages of apoptosis. FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) can also be used for cell permeability studies, such as blood-brain barrier permeability and determination of the extent of blood-brain barrier disruption.
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000)
  • HY-116215
    2-NBDG 186689-07-6 ≥98.0%
    2-NBDG is a fluorescently-labeled deoxyglucose analog that is used primarily to directly monitor glucose uptake by living cells and tissues. It is also used as a topical contrast reagent for the detection of neoplasia. 2-NBDG can be used in real-time confocal, high-resolution, or wide-field fluorescence microscopy as well as in flow cytometry. The probe can be excited by the Argon laser at 488 nm to give the environment-sensitive fluorescence. It has lower photostability than the rhodamine-based fluorescent probes.
  • HY-D0083
    DiI 41085-99-8 ≥98.0%
    DiI is a long-chain carbocyanine dye. Carbocyanine dyes are widely used as Di to label cells, organelles, liposomes, viruses and lipoproteins.
  • HY-101896
    Fluo-4 AM 273221-67-3 ≥99.0%
    Fluo-4 AM is a cell-permeable Ca2+ indicator.
    Fluo-4 AM
  • HY-D1048
    DiR 100068-60-8 ≥98.0%
    DiR is a long-chain carbocyanine dye. Carbocyanine dyes are widely used as Di to label cells, organelles, liposomes, viruses and lipoproteins.
  • HY-D0985A
    TMRE 115532-52-0 ≥98.0%
    Rhodamine dyes are membrane-permeable cationic fluorescent probes that specifically recognize mitochondrial membrane potentials, thereby attaching to mitochondria and producing bright fluorescence, and at certain concentrations, rhodamine dyes have low toxicity to cells, so they are commonly used to detect mitochondria in animal cells, plant cells, and microorganisms.
  • HY-101879
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride 65-61-2 99.86%
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride is a cell-penetrable nucleic acid-selective fluorescent dye. Acridine Orange hydrochloride produces orange fluorescence when it binds to ssDNA or RNA, and green fluorescence when it binds to dsDNA (Ex: 488 nM; Em: green fluorescence at 530 nm, orange fluorescence at 640 nm).
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride