1. Dye Reagents

Dye Reagents

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

A new approach is presented for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples, based on selective fluorescent staining using Nile Red (NR), followed by density-based extraction and filtration. The dye adsorbs onto plastic surfaces and renders them fluorescent when irradiated with blue light. Fluorescence emission is detected using simple photography through an orange filter. Image-analysis allows fluorescent particles to be identified and counted. Magnified images can be recorded and tiled to cover the whole filter area, allowing particles down to a few micrometres to be detected. The solvatochromic nature of Nile Red also offers the possibility of plastic categorisation based on surface polarity characteristics of identified particles. This article details the development of this staining method and its initial cross-validation by comparison with infrared (IR) microscopy. Microplastics of different sizes could be detected and counted in marine sediment samples. The fluorescence staining identified the same particles as those found by scanning a filter area with IR-microscopy.

Cyanine dyes can be used to quantify the amount of dsDNA within a sample. The linearity of fluorescence, as function of DNA amount of six dyes, is obtained by measuring the fluorescence intensity at the optimal excitation and emission maxima.

Dye Reagents (384):

Cat. No. Product Name CAS No. Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA 4091-99-0 ≥98.0%
    H2DCFDA (DCFH-DA) is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • HY-15534
    JC-1 3520-43-2 ≥99.0%
    JC-1 (CBIC2) is a fluorescent lipophilic carbocyanine dye used to measure mitochondrial membrane potential. JC-1 forms complexes known as J-aggregates at high ΔΨm. Aggregates of JC-1 emit an orange-red fluorescence (Ex/Em=585/590 nm). While in cells with low ΔΨm, JC-1 remains in the monomeric form. JC-1 monomers emit a green fluorescence (Ex/Em=510/527 nm).
  • HY-D0938
    CFSE 150347-59-4
    CFSE (5(6)-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) is an intracellular fluorescent dye which can track proliferating cells. Covalently bound CFSE is divided equally between daughter cells, allowing discrimination of successive rounds of cell division.
  • HY-D0718
    Nile Red 7385-67-3 98.02%
    Nile Red (Nile Blue A oxazone) is a selective and hydrophobic fluorescent stain for intracellular lipid droplets and neutral lipids. Nile Red is intensely fluorescent in all organic solvents and the fluorescence colors range from golden yellow to deep red.
    Nile Red
  • HY-D0815
    Propidium Iodide 25535-16-4 ≥98.0%
    Propidium Iodide is a red-fluorescent dye that can be used to stain cells.
    Propidium Iodide
  • HY-D0814
    DAPI dihydrochloride 28718-90-3 ≥98.0%
    DAPI dihydrochloride (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) is a fluorescent stain by binding in the minor grove of A-T rich sequences of DNA.
    DAPI dihydrochloride
  • HY-D0041
    Calcein-AM 148504-34-1 ≥98.0%
    Calcein-AM is cell-permeable fluorescent dye used to determine the cell viability.
  • HY-66019
    FITC 3326-32-7 ≥98.0%
    FITC (Fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate) is a fluorescence probe for the labeling of amines. FITC is a pH- and Cu2+-sensitive fluorescence dye.
  • HY-D0985A
    TMRE 115532-52-0
    TMRE is a mitochondria specific dye (λex=550 nm, λem=575 nm).
  • HY-D0083
    DiI 41085-99-8 ≥98.0%
    DiI (DiIC18(3)) is a lipophilic carbocyanine fluorescent dye for membrane labeling. DiI has an absorption maximum at 549 nm and an emission maximum 565 nm. DiI is mildly fluorescent in aqueous suspension, but becomes bright when bound to cell membrane.
  • HY-111382
    Diphenylterazine 344940-63-2 98.06%
    Diphenylterazine (DTZ) is a bioluminescence agent. Diphenylterazine alone yielded very little background, leading to excellent signal-to-background ratios.
  • HY-128868
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) 60842-46-8
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000) is a marker consisting of coupling fluorescein-isothiocyanate to dextran (10 kDa). FITC-Dextran are polysaccharides comprised of varying lengths of branched glucose molecules and can be used to determine solute, ion and protein permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) based on the size of the dextran used.
    FITC-Dextran (MW 10000)
  • HY-D0079
    Dihydroethidium 104821-25-2 ≥98.0%
    Dihydroethidium(Hydroethidine; PD-MY 003) is a superoxide indicator; exhibits blue-fluorescence in the cytosol until oxidized, where it intercalates within the cell's DNA, staining its nucleus a bright fluorescent red.
  • HY-116215
    2-NBDG 186689-07-6 ≥98.0%
    2-NBDG, a fluorescent D-glucose analog, is a fluorescent indicator for monitoring glucose uptake into living cells. Ex: 467 nm; Em 542 nm.
  • HY-D0816
    Rhodamine 123 62669-70-9 98.17%
    Rhodamine 123 (RH-123; R-22420) is a fluorescent dye (λex=503 nm, λem=527 nm).
    Rhodamine 123
  • HY-101879
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride 65-61-2 99.86%
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride is a cell-permeable fluorescent dye that binds to nucleic acids, resulting in an altered spectral emission.
    Acridine Orange hydrochloride
  • HY-D0150
    Thiazole Orange 107091-89-4 99.84%
    Thiazole orange is an unsymmetrical cyanine dye which can be conjugated to oligonucleotides (ONs) to create fluorogenic hybridisation probes. Thiazole orange can be used for reticulocyte analysis.
    Thiazole Orange
  • HY-D0098
    Fluorescein-5-maleimide 75350-46-8
    Fluorescein-5-maleimide is a fluorescent thiol-reactive dye used to conjugate fluorescein to proteins (excitation: 494 nm, emission: 519 nm).
  • HY-D0903
    DFO 54078-29-4
    DFO (9H-1,8-Diazafluoren-9-one) is a chemical that is used to find fingerprints on porous surfaces.
  • HY-110250
    DFHBI 1241390-29-3 99.11%
    DFHBI is a small molecule that resembles the chromophore of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Spinach and DFHBI are essentially nonfluorescent when unbound, whereas the Spinach-DFHBI complex is brightly fluorescent both in vitro and in living cells.