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Pathways Recommended: Stem Cell/Wnt Cell Cycle/DNA Damage
Results for "

HCC cells

" in MCE Product Catalog:

55

Inhibitors & Agonists

1

Inhibitory Antibodies

8

Natural
Products

Cat. No. Product Name Target Research Areas
  • HY-147187
    MNK8

    STAT Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family Survivin Cancer
    MNK8 is a potent STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) inhibitor. MNK8 inhibits STAT3 activation and reduced its DNA binding ability. MNK8 shows good growth inhibition against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. MNK8 induces apoptosis in HCC cells. MNK8 reduces prosurvival proteins expression and migration/invasion of HCC cells.
  • HY-120349
    LL-Z1640-4

    p38 MAPK JNK Apoptosis Reactive Oxygen Species Cancer
    LL-Z1640-4 is a potent p38/JNK signaling inhibitor. LL-Z1640-4 significantly diminishes p38 and JNK activation in HCC cells transfected with MLK4 siRNA. LL-Z1640-4 markedly attenuates ROS production induced by MLK4 knockdown. LL-Z1640-4 significantly reduces the apoptotic cells in HCC cells transfected with siMLK4.
  • HY-P99013
    Codrituzumab

    GC33; RO5137382

    Others Cancer
    Codrituzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting GPC3 (glypican-3). GPC3 is an oncofetal protein expressed on the cell surface of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Codrituzumab induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and inhibits tumor growth.
  • HY-142945
    KRAS G12C inhibitor 43

    Ras Cancer
    KRAS G12C inhibitor 43 (compound 59) is a potent KRAS G12C inhibitor. KRAS G12C inhibitor 43 shows antimigration and anti-proliferative activity with IC50s of 0.001-1 µM, >1 µM, >1 µM for H358, A549, HCC cells ,respectively.
  • HY-146423
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 6

    PROTACs EGFR Apoptosis Cancer
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 6, a PROTAC EGFR degrader, potently degrades EGFR Del19 in HCC827 cells with the DC50 of 45.2 nM. PROTAC EGFR degrader 6 significantly induces the apoptosis of HCC827 cells and arrest the cells in G1 phase.
  • HY-146422
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 5

    PROTACs EGFR Apoptosis Cancer
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 5 (Compound 10), a PROTAC EGFR degrader, potently degrades EGFR Del19 in HCC827 cells with the DC50 of 34.8 nM. PROTAC EGFR degrader 5 significantly induces the apoptosis of HCC827 cells and arrest the cells in G1 phase.
  • HY-N1260
    Scutebarbatine A

    (-)-Scutebarbatine A

    Apoptosis Cancer
    Scutebarbatine A inhibits the proliferation of HCC cells and triggers their apoptosis via the activation of MAPK and ER stress.
  • HY-141813
    Autophagy-IN-C1

    Autophagy Cancer
    Autophagy-IN-C1 not only induces apoptosis but also blocks autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
  • HY-19832
    SC66

    Akt Apoptosis Cancer
    SC66 is an Akt inhibitor, reduces cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inhibits colony formation and induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
  • HY-123921
    Gefitinib-based PROTAC 3

    PROTACs EGFR Cancer
    Gefitinib-based PROTAC 3, conjugating an EGFR binding element to a von Hippel-Lindau ligand via a linker, induces EGFR degradation with DC50s of 11.7 nM and 22.3 nM in HCC827(exon 19 del) and H3255 (L858R mutantion) cells, respectively.
  • HY-142685
    Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-2

    Others Cancer
    Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-2 (compound 29) is a potent inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) with IC50s of 0.065 and 0.097 μM in cell lysate-based and cell-based PC activity, respectively. Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-2 is a natural analog of erianin. Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-2 inhibites the enzymatic activity of PC, mediating the anticancer effect in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • HY-142684
    Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-1

    Others Cancer
    Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-1 (compound 37) is a potent inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) with IC50s of 0.204 and 0.104 μM in cell lysate-based and cell-based PC activity, respectively. Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-1 is a natural analog of erianin. Pyruvate Carboxylase-IN-1 inhibites the enzymatic activity of PC, mediating the anticancer effect in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • HY-N0876
    Arenobufagin

    Others Cancer
    Arenobufagin is a natural bufadienolide from toad venom; has potent antineoplastic activity against HCC HepG2 cells as well as corresponding multidrug-resistant HepG2/ADM cells.
  • HY-145389
    SZ-015268

    CDK Cancer
    SZ-015268 is a CDK7 inhibitor with an IC50 of 23.56 nM. SZ-015268 has extremely significant anti-tumor advantages. SZ-015268 inhibits HCC70, OVCAR-3, HCT116 and HCC1806 cells proliferation with IC50s of 33, 80.56, 12.53, and 61.55 nM, respectively.
  • HY-130173
    Bafilomycin C1

    Bacterial Fungal Na+/K+ ATPase Apoptosis Antibiotic Cancer Infection
    Bafilomycin C1 is a macrolide antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces sp. Bafilomycin C1 is a potent, specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar-type H +-ATPases (V-ATPases). Bafilomycin C1 inhibits growth of gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Bafilomycin C1 induces cell apoptosis and can be used for the study of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • HY-119694
    Rotenolone

    Others Cancer
    Rotenolone is an antiproliferative agent. Rotenolone shows antiproliferative activity against the ovarian cancer A2780, breast cancer BT-549, prostate cancer DU 145, NSCLC NCI-H460, and colon cancer HCC-2998 cell lines, with IC50s of 0.95, 1.6, 2.7, 2.0, and 2.9 μM, respectively.
  • HY-115449
    Chromeceptin

    94G6

    IGF-1R Akt mTOR Cancer
    Chromeceptin (94G6) is an IGF signaling pathway inhibitor. Chromeceptin suppresses IGF2 expression at mRNA and protein levels in hepatocyte and HCC cells. Chromeceptin inhibits the phosphorylation levels of AKT and mTOR.
  • HY-101519
    BETd-260

    ZBC 260

    PROTACs Epigenetic Reader Domain Apoptosis Cancer
    BETd-260 (ZBC 260) is a PROTAC connected by ligands for Cereblon and BET, with as low as 30 pM against BRD4 protein in RS4;11 leukemia cell line. BETd-260 potently suppresses cell viability and robustly induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
  • HY-N6896
    Isoviolanthin

    TGF-beta/Smad Cancer
    Isoviolanthin, a flavonoid glycoside, could markedly inhibit TGF-β1-mediated migration and invasion by deactivating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the TGF-β/Smad and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways in HCC cells. Isoviolanthin exhibits no cytotoxic effects on normal liver LO2 cells.
  • HY-N6623
    Malvidin-3-galactoside chloride

    Apoptosis Endogenous Metabolite Reactive Oxygen Species Cancer
    Malvidin-3-galactoside chloride, an anthocyanin monomer, induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells cycle arrest and apoptosis. Malvidin-3-galactoside chloride inhibits the production and accumulation of ROS. Malvidin-3-galactoside chloride has anti-tumor function.
  • HY-146395
    HBV-IN-23

    HBV DNA/RNA Synthesis Apoptosis Cancer Infection
    HBV-IN-23 (Compound 5k) is an inhibitor of HBV DNA replication with an IC50 of 0.58 µM. HBV-IN-23 inhibits HBV DNA replication in both drug sensitive and resistant HBV strains. HBV-IN-23 shows anti-hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) activities. HBV-IN-23 induces HepG2 cells apoptosis.
  • HY-144605
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 3

    EGFR PROTACs Cancer
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 3 is a potent PROTAC EGFR degrader. PROTAC EGFR degrader 3 shows excellent cellular activity against the H1975 and HCC827 cells with high selectively. PROTAC EGFR degrader 3 shows that the lysosome is involved in the degradation process of EGFR mutant degradation.
  • HY-16196
    ENMD-1198

    IRC-110160

    Microtubule/Tubulin HIF/HIF Prolyl-Hydroxylase STAT Cancer
    ENMD-1198 (IRC-110160), an orally active microtubule destabilizing agent, is a 2-methoxyestradiol analogue with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity. ENMD-1198 is suitable for inhibiting HIF-1alpha and STAT3 in human HCC cells and leads to reduced tumor growth and vascularization.
  • HY-137506
    XST-14

    ULK p38 MAPK TGF-β Receptor Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) CaMK Apoptosis Cancer
    XST-14 is a potent, competitive and highly selective ULK1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 26.6 nM. XST-14 induces autophagy inhibition by reducing the phosphorylation of the ULK1 downstream substrate. XST-14 induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and has antitumor effects.
  • HY-19345
    Vacquinol-1

    NSC13316

    Others Cancer
    Vacquinol-1 (NSC13316) is a MKK4-specific activator that activates MAPK pathways. Vacquinol-1 specifically induces human glioblastoma cell (GC) death, attenuates tumor progression and prolongs survival in a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) mouse model. Vacquinol-1 also induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)cell.
  • HY-N5136
    25(R,S)-Ruscogenin

    Apoptosis PI3K Akt mTOR Cancer
    Ruscogenin suppresses HCC metastasis by reducing the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA, VEGF and HIF-1α via regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. And Ruscogenin alleviates LPS-induced pulmonary endothelial cell apoptosis by su
  • HY-144724
    HSP90-IN-10

    HSP Apoptosis Cancer
    HSP90-IN-10 (Compound 16s) is a potent inhibitor of HSP90. HSP90-IN-10 exhibits high antiproliferative potency against HCC1954 breast cancer cells with the IC50 value of 6 µM. HSP90-IN-10 does not inhibit the growth of normal epithelial cells. HSP90-IN-10 also induces apoptosis.
  • HY-139781
    PD-L1-IN-1

    PD-1/PD-L1 Cancer
    PD-L1-IN-1 is a potent PD-L1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 115 nM. PD-L1-IN-1 strongly binds with the PD-L1 protein and challenged it in a co-culture of PD-L1 expressing cancer cells (PC9 and HCC827 cells) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced antitumor immune activity of the latter. PD-L1-IN-1 significantly increased interferon γ release and apoptotic induction of cancer cells, with low cytotoxicity in healthy cells.
  • HY-10174
    PD184161

    MEK Apoptosis Cancer Neurological Disease
    PD184161 is an orally active MEK inhibitor. PD184161 inhibits MEK activity (IC50=10-100 nM) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. PD184161 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. PD184161 produces depressive-like behavior.
  • HY-146504
    Topoisomerase I/II inhibitor 3

    Topoisomerase PI3K Apoptosis Reactive Oxygen Species Cancer
    Topoisomerase I/II inhibitor 3 (compound 7) is a potent topoisomerase I (Topo I) and II (Topo II) dual inhibitor. Topoisomerase I/II inhibitor 3 can inhibit cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and induce apoptosis by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Topoisomerase I/II inhibitor 3 can be used for liver cancer research.
  • HY-150538
    STAT3-IN-12

    STAT Apoptosis Cancer
    STAT3-IN-12 is a potent STAT3 signal inhibitor that can inhibit IL-6 induced JAK/STAT3 signalling pathway activation. STAT3-IN-12 inhibits cancer cell growth, migration, and induce cell apoptosis as well as cycle arrest. STAT3-IN-12 can be used in cancer-related research, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and oesophageal carcinoma.
  • HY-N7073
    Silymarin

    SARS-CoV Cancer Infection Inflammation/Immunology Neurological Disease
    Silymarin is an extract of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Silymarin is an effective SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M pro) inhibitor. Silymarin can significantly reduce tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis as well as insulin resistance. Silymarin has the chemopreventive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Silymarin has the potential for COVID-19 research.
  • HY-147793
    FGFR4-IN-12

    FGFR Cancer
    FGFR4-IN-12 (Compound A34) is a potent inhibitor of FGFR4. FGFR4-IN-12 exhibits improved FGFR4 inhibitory capability and selectivity and excellent anti-proliferative activities against FGFR4-dependent HCC cell lines. FGFR4-IN-12 has the potential for the research of cancer diseases.
  • HY-19617A
    EGFR-IN-1 hydrochloride

    EGFR Cancer
    EGFR-IN-1 hydrochloride is an orally active and irreversible L858R/T790M mutant selective EGFR inhibitor. EGFR-IN-1 hydrochloride potently inhibits Gefitinib-resistant EGFR L858R, T790M with 100-fold selectivity over wild-type EGFR. EGFR-IN-1 hydrochloride displays strong antiproliferative activity against the H1975 cells and the first line mutant HCC827 cells. Antitumor activity.
  • HY-151359
    Hsp90-IN-16

    Apoptosis HSP Cancer
    Hsp90-IN-16 (compound 16s) is an HSP90 inhibitor with high selectivity and potency against HER2-positive cancer cells. Hsp90-IN-16 exhibits high anti-proliferative capacity against HCC1954 breast cancer cells with an IC50 of 6 μM. Hsp90-IN-16 induces apoptosis by inhibiting HSP90 "client" proteins, including a key oncogenic receptor, HER2/neu.
  • HY-19617B
    EGFR-IN-1 TFA

    EGFR Cancer
    EGFR-IN-1 TFA is an orally active and irreversible L858R/T790M mutant selective EGFR inhibitor. EGFR-IN-1 TFA potently inhibits Gefitinib-resistant EGFR L858R, T790M with 100-fold selectivity over wild-type EGFR. EGFR-IN-1 TFA displays strong antiproliferative activity against the H1975 cells and the first line mutant HCC827 cells. Antitumor activity.
  • HY-19617
    EGFR-IN-1

    EGFR Cancer
    EGFR-IN-1 (compound 24) is an orally active and irreversible L858R/T790M mutant selective EGFR inhibitor. EGFR-IN-1 potently inhibits Gefitinib-resistant EGFR L858R, T790M with 100-fold selectivity over wild-type EGFR. EGFR-IN-1 displays strong antiproliferative activity against the H1975 cells and the first line mutant HCC827 cells. Antitumor activity.
  • HY-146407
    Anticancer agent 53

    Apoptosis Cancer
    Anticancer agent 53 is a potent anticancer agent. Anticancer agent 53 shows in vitro cytotoxicity. Anticancer agent 53 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M phases. Anticancer agent 53 shows antitumor activity with no apparent toxicity.
  • HY-142956
    ROS-ERS inducer 1

    Reactive Oxygen Species Cancer
    ROS-ERS inducer 1 is a type II ICD (immunogenic cell death) inducer. ROS-ERS inducer 1 is a Pt(II)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Pt(II)-NHC) complex derived from 4,5-diarylimidazole. ROS-ERS inducer 1 successfully induces endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and finally lead to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in HCC cells. ROS-ERS inducer 1 displays much higher anticancer activities than Cisplatin.
  • HY-116000
    Glumetinib

    SCC244

    c-Met/HGFR Cancer
    Glumetinib (SCC244) is a highly selective, orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive c-Met inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.42 nM. Glumetinib has greater than 2400-fold selectivity for c-Met over those 312 kinases evaluated, including the c-Met family member RON and highly homologous kinases Axl, Mer, TyrO3. Antitumor activity.
  • HY-143881
    FGFR4-IN-6

    FGFR Cancer
    FGFR4-IN-6 (Compound 9ka) is a covalently reversible FGFR4 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 5.4 nM. FGFR4-IN-6 also exhibits good oral pharmacokinetic properties. FGFR4-IN-6 induces significant tumor regressions in a xenograft mouse model of Hep3B2.1-7 HCC cell line without an obvious sign of toxicity.
  • HY-N0751
    Scutellarin

    STAT Akt HIV Cancer Infection
    Scutellarin, an active flavone isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, can down-regulates the STAT3/Girdin/Akt signaling in HCC cells, and inhibits RANKL-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in osteoclasts. Scutellarin is active against HIV-1IIIB, HIV-1(74V) and HIV-1KM018 with EC50s of 26 μM, 253 μM and 136 μM, respectively.
  • HY-146349
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 4

    PROTACs EGFR Autophagy Cancer
    PROTAC EGFR degrader 4 is a potent PROTAC targeting mutant EGFR.PROTAC EGFR degrader 4 induces EGFR del19 and EGFR L858R/T790M degradation with DC50s of 0.51 and 126 nM, respectively. PROTAC EGFR degrader 4 significantly inhibits growth of HCC827 and H1975 cell lines with IC50s of 0.83 and 203.1 nM, respectively. Induced EGFR degradation is related to autophagy.
  • HY-150596
    CT1-3

    Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family JNK Cancer
    CT1-3 is a potent anticancer agent. CT1-3 induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by regulating JNK/Bcl-2/Bax/XIAP pathway. CT1-3 suppresses the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) potential of human cancer cells (HCCs) via regulating the E-cadherin/Snail axis, thus inhibits tumorigenesis. CT1-3 has a strong antitumor effect in mice model and exhibits no significant hepatic and renal toxicity.
  • HY-50767C
    Palbociclib hydrochloride

    PD-0332991 hydrochloride

    CDK Cancer
    Palbociclib (PD 0332991) hydrochloride is an orally active selective CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 11 and 16 nM, respectively. Palbociclib hydrochloride has potent anti-proliferative activity and induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Palbociclib hydrochloride can be used in the research of HR-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • HY-50767B
    Palbociclib dihydrochloride

    PD-0332991 dihydrochloride

    CDK Cancer
    Palbociclib (PD 0332991) dihydrochloride is an orally active selective CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 11 and 16 nM, respectively. Palbociclib dihydrochloride has potent anti-proliferative activity and induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which can be used in the research of HR-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • HY-50767
    Palbociclib

    PD 0332991

    CDK Cancer
    Palbociclib (PD 0332991) is an orally active selective CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 11 and 16 nM, respectively. Palbociclib has potent anti-proliferative activity and induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which can be used in the research of HR-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • HY-50767D
    Palbociclib orotate

    PD 0332991 orotate

    CDK Cancer
    Palbociclib (PD 0332991) orotate is an orally active selective CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 11 and 16 nM, respectively. Palbociclib orotate has potent anti-proliferative activity and induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Palbociclib orotate can be used in the research of HR-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • HY-50767A
    Palbociclib monohydrochloride

    PD 0332991 monohydrochloride

    CDK Cancer
    Palbociclib (PD 0332991) monohydrochloride is an orally active selective CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 11 and 16 nM, respectively. Palbociclib monohydrochloride has potent anti-proliferative activity and induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which can be used in the research of HR-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • HY-A0065
    Palbociclib isethionate

    PD 0332991 isethionate

    CDK Cancer
    Palbociclib (PD 0332991) isethionate is an orally active selective CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitor with IC50 values of 11 and 16 nM, respectively. Palbociclib isethionate has potent anti-proliferative activity and induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells, which can be used in the research of HR-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • HY-15897
    LDN-212854

    TGF-β Receptor Cancer
    LDN-212854 is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor that potently inhibits ALK2 (IC50: 1.3 nM). LDN-212854 also inhibits ALK1 (IC50: 2.40 nM). LDN-212854 can be used in the research of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive and cancers, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • HY-P9971
    Camrelizumab

    SHR-1210

    PD-1/PD-L1 Cancer
    Camrelizumab (SHR-1210) is a potent humanied high-affinity IgG4-κ monoclonal antibody (mAb) to PD-1. Camrelizumab binds PD-1 at a high affinity of 3 nM and inhibits the binding interaction of PD-1 and PD-L1 with an IC50 of 0.70 nM. Camrelizumab acts as anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agent and can be used for cancer research, including NSCLC, ESCC, Hodgkin lymphoma, and advanced HCC et,al.
  • HY-B0402A
    Amantadine hydrochloride

    1-Adamantanamine hydrochloride; 1-Adamantylamine hydrochloride; 1-Aminoadamantane hydrochloride

    Influenza Virus Orthopoxvirus SARS-CoV Apoptosis Bcl-2 Family CDK Cancer Infection Neurological Disease
    Amantadine (1-Adamantanamine) hydrochloride is an orally avtive and potent antiviral agent with activity against influenza A viruses. Amantadine hydrochloride inhibits several ion channels such as NMDA and M2, and also inhibits Coronavirus ion channels. Amantadine hydrochloride also has anti-orthopoxvirus and anticancer activity. Amantadine hydrochloride can be used for Parkinson's disease, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and COVID-19 research.
  • HY-B0402
    Amantadine

    1-Adamantanamine; 1-Aminoadamantane

    Influenza Virus Orthopoxvirus SARS-CoV Apoptosis CDK Bcl-2 Family Cancer Infection Neurological Disease
    Amantadine (1-Adamantanamine) is an orally avtive and potent antiviral agent with activity against influenza A viruses. Amantadine inhibits several ion channels such as NMDA and M2, and also inhibits Coronavirus ion channels. Amantadine also has anti-orthopoxvirus and anticancer activity. Amantadine can be used for Parkinson's disease, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and COVID-19 research.
  • HY-B0402B
    Amantadine sulfate

    1-Adamantanamine sulfate; 1-Aminoadamantane sulfate

    Influenza Virus Orthopoxvirus SARS-CoV Apoptosis CDK Bcl-2 Family Cancer Infection Neurological Disease
    Amantadine (1-Adamantanamine) sulfate is an orally avtive and potent antiviral agent with activity against influenza A viruses. Amantadine sulfate inhibits several ion channels such as NMDA and M2, and also inhibits Coronavirus ion channels. Amantadine sulfate also has anti-orthopoxvirus and anticancer activity. Amantadine sulfate can be used for Parkinson's disease, postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and COVID-19 research.