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death

" in MedChemExpress (MCE) Product Catalog:

471

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2

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5

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43

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Click Chemistry

Cat. No. Product Name
  • HY-L162
    2369 compounds

    Cell death plays a crucial role in the development of the body and the maintenance of internal balance to prevent the development of diseases. According to the regulation of the involved processes, cell death can be defined as programmed and non-programmed death. Programmed cell death (PCD) can be divided into lytic cell death and nonlytic cell death, mainly including apoptosis, necrotic apoptosis and Pyroptosis. Non-Programmed cell death (Non-PCD) generally refers to necrosis. In stark contrast to Accidental Cell Death (ACD), Regulatory Cell Death (RCD) relies on specialized molecular mechanisms. Cell death includes internal apoptosis, external apoptosis, necrotic apoptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, lysosome-dependent cell death, etc.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 2369 cell death compounds, covering multiple targets, such as Apoptosis, Ferroptosis, Pyroptosis, Necroptosis, etc. It is a useful tool for screening cell death drugs.

  • HY-L051
    882 compounds

    Ferroptosis is a novel type of cell death program that is distinct from apoptosis, necroptosis and autophagy. It is dependent on iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is characterized by lipid peroxidation. As a novel type of cell death, ferroptosis has distinct properties and recognizing functions involved in physical conditions or various diseases including cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, acute renal failure, etc.

    MCE carefully collected a unique collection of 882 ferroptosis signaling pathway related compounds with ferroptosis-inducing or -inhibitory activity. MCE Ferroptosis Compound Library is a useful tool to study ferroptosis mechanism as well as related diseases.

  • HY-L133
    180 compounds

    Copper is an important co-factor of all biological enzymes, but if the concentration exceeds the threshold of maintaining the homeostasis mechanism, copper will lead to cytotoxicity. This death mechanism has been named "Cuproptosis".

    The mechanism of cuproptosis distinct from all other known mechanisms of regulated cell death, including apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and ferroptosis.

    Copper combine with the lipoylated components of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), leading to lipoylated protein aggregation and subsequent loss of iron-sulfur cluster proteins, ultimately resulting in protein toxicity stress and cell death. Studies have shown that the necessary factors for cuproptosis include the presence of glutathione, mitochondrial metabolism of galactose and pyruvate, and glutamine metabolism.

    Targeted regulation of cuproptosis is a potential choice to treat cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. For example, up-regulation of LIPT1 may inhibit the occurrence and development of tumors by destroying TCA in mitochondria and then inducing cuproptosis.

    MCE supplies a unique collection of 180 cuproptosis-related compounds, all of which act on the targets or signaling pathways related to cuproptosis and may have in inhibitory or activated effect on cuproptosis. MCE Cuproptosis Library is a useful tool for drug research related to cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases.

  • HY-L059
    1185 compounds

    Programmed cell death pathways, including apoptosis, pyroptosis and necroptosis, are regulated by unique sets of host proteins that coordinate a variety of biological outcomes. Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that occurs most frequently upon infection with intracellular pathogens and is likely to form part of the antimicrobial response. This process promotes the rapid clearance of various bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan infections by removing intracellular replication niches and enhancing the host's defensive responses. Pyroptosis has been widely studied in inflammatory and infection disease models. Recently, there are growing evidences that pyroptosis also plays an important role in the development of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and Metabolic disorder, etc.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 1185 pyroptosis-related compounds mainly focusing on the key targets in the pyroptosis signaling pathway and can be used in the research of pyroptosis signal pathway and related diseases.

  • HY-L144
    552 compounds

    Normal mitochondrial function is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis because mitochondria produce ATP and are the major intracellular source of free radicals. Cellular dysfunctions induced by intracellular or extracellular insults converge on mitochondria and induce a sudden increase in permeability on the inner mitochondrial membrane, the so-called mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT). MMPT is caused by the opening of pores in the inner mitochondrial membrane, matrix swelling, and outer membrane rupture. The MMPT is an endpoint to initiate cell death because the pore opening together with the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c activates the apoptotic pathway of caspases.

    The normal operation of mitochondrial function is important for maintaining normal cell death and treatment of mitochondrial diseases. MCE offers a unique collection of 552 compounds with identified and potential mitochondrial protective activity. MCE Mitochondrial Protection Compound Library is critical for drug discovery and development.

  • HY-L175
    60 compounds

    Inflammasomes are classic pattern recognition receptors for natural immune responses. Inflammasomes are polymeric protein complexes that regulate inflammatory responses and pyrolytic cell death, thereby exerting the host's defense against microorganisms. Inflammasomes sensors are associated with adapter proteins, activating inflammatory caspase-1, releasing inflammatory cytokines and inducing cell death, endowing the host with defense against pathogens. NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, AIM2, and pyrin are considered typical inflammasomes because they convert cysteine asparaginase-1 into catalytically active capsaicin-1. In addition to infectious diseases, the importance of inflammasomes is also related to various clinical diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders, and the development of cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly regulate the activation and function of inflammasomes to avoid accidental host tissue damage while inducing pathogens to kill the inflammatory response.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 60 inflammasomes related compounds. It is a good tool to be used for research on Inflammation, cancer and other diseases.

  • HY-L122
    1219 compounds

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide and a serious threat to human health. Multiple treatments have been developed for cancer treatment, but new anti-cancer drugs still need to be developed urgently. Approved drugs, have well-characterized bioactivities, safety and bioavailability properties, will dramatically accelerate drug development.

    MCE offers a unique collection of 1219 approved drugs with anti-cancer activity, which can be used for discovery of new anti-cancer drugs or as positive compounds used for anti-cancer research.

  • HY-L025
    7417 compounds

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and seriously threatens human health. A neoplasm and malignant tumor are other common names for cancer. Disruption of the normal regulation of cell-cycle progression and division lies at the heart of the events leading to cancer. Target therapy, which targets proteins that control how cancer cells grow, divide and spread, plays an important role in cancer treatment. Recent studies mainly focus on targeting the key proteins for cancer surviving, cancer stem cells, the tumor microenvironment, tumor immunology, etc.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 7417 anti-cancer compounds that target kinases, cell cycle key components, tumorigenesis related signaling pathways, etc. MCE Anti-cancer compound library is a useful tool for anti-cancer drug screening.

  • HY-L134
    184 compounds

    Aging is an unavoidable process, leading to cell senescence due to physiochemical changes in an organism. Aging cells cease to divide and drive the progression of illness through various pathways, resulting in the death of an organism ultimately. Anti-aging activities are primarily involved in the therapies of age-related disorders such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

    Natural products are known as effective molecules in anti-aging treatments, which delay the aging process through influencing several pathways and thus ensure an extended lifespan. MCE offers a unique collection of 184 natural products with validated anti-aging activity. MCE anti-aging natural product library is a useful tool for the study of aging-related diseases drugs and pharmacology.

  • HY-L003
    2104 compounds

    Apoptosis is an ordered and orchestrated cellular process that occurs in physiological and pathological conditions, which is also called programmed cell death (PCD). Apoptosis plays a crucial role in developing and maintaining the health of the body by eliminating old cells, unhealthy cells and unnecessary cells. Too little or too much apoptosis contribute to many diseases. When apoptosis does not work correctly, cells that should be eliminated may persist and become immortal, for example, in cancer and leukemia. When apoptosis works overly well, it kills too many cells and inflicts grave tissue damage. This is the case in strokes and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's disease.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 2104 apoptosis-related compounds mainly focusing on the key targets in the apoptosis signaling pathway and can be used in the research of apoptosis signal pathway and related diseases.

  • HY-L012
    4283 compounds

    Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. Metabolic pathways are enzyme-mediated biochemical reactions that lead to biosynthesis (anabolism) or breakdown (catabolism) of natural product small molecules within a cell or tissue. Acting as catalysts, enzymes are crucial to metabolism - they allow a reaction to proceed more rapidly - and they also allow the regulation of the rate of a metabolic reaction. Proteases are used throughout an organism for various metabolic processes. Proteases control a great variety of physiological processes that are critical for life, including the immune response, cell cycle, cell death, wound healing, food digestion, and protein and organelle recycling. Imbalances in metabolic activities have been found to be critical in a number of pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 4283 Metabolism/Protease-related small molecules that act as a useful tool for drug discovery of metabolism-related diseases.

  • HY-L016
    1012 compounds

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are key signaling molecules and important drug targets. Two classes of PTKs are present in cells: the transmembrane receptor PTKs (RTKs) and the nonreceptor PTKs. The RTK family includes the receptors for insulin and for many growth factors, such as EGFR, FGFR, PDGFR, VEGFR, and NGFR. RTKs are transmembrane glycoproteins that are activated by the binding of their ligands, and they transduce the extracellular signal to the cytoplasm by phosphorylating tyrosine residues on the receptors themselves (autophosphorylation) and on downstream signaling proteins. Their principal functions of PTKs involve the regulation of multicellular aspects of the organism. Cell to cell signals concerning growth, differentiation, adhesion, motility, and death are frequently transmitted through tyrosine kinases. In humans, tyrosine kinases have been demonstrated to play significant roles in the development of many disease states, including diabetes and cancers.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 1012 compounds that act as a useful tool for PTKs-related drug screening and disease research.

  • HY-L082
    430 compounds

    A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its food from or at the expense of its host. Parasites of humans include protozoans, helminths, and ecto-parasites (organisms that live on the external surface of a host). They are responsible for many diseases and are transmitted to their hosts most often through the ingestion of contaminated food, water or through the bite of an arthropod (e.g., a fly or tick), which can act as an intermediate host and as a vector. Parasitic diseases of humans are a major global health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Each year there are hundreds of millions of people infected with disease-causing parasites, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, resulting in an estimated one million deaths. Therefore, there is a dire need of novel anti-parasitic drugs.

    MCE has a unique collection of 430 compounds with validated anti-parasitic activity which offer researchers an opportunity to screen novel anti-parasitic targets.

  • HY-L145
    459 compounds

    The majority of hypertensive patients have primary (or essential) hypertension, that is, hypertension in which secondary causes are not present. Management aims to control arterial pressure, prevent end-organ damage (cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, and renal), and reduce the risk of premature death.

    Antihypertensive drugs may be divided into two broad groups, the first group being those which directly or indirectly block the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), for example, ACEIs, angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARAs), direct renin inhibitors (DRIs), and to a lesser extent β-blockers. The second group of drugs works by increasing water and sodium excretion, thereby reducing intravascular volume, or by causing vasodilatation through non-RAS pathways, for example, diuretics and calcium channel blockers (CCBs).

    MCE offers a unique collection of 459 compounds with identified and potential antihypertensive activity. MCE Antihypertensive Compound Library is critical for antihypertensive drug discovery and development.

  • HY-L179
    0 Compounds compounds

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for various cancers, and more than 50% of cancer patients require radiotherapy during the disease treatment. With advances in radiation technology and a better understanding of tumor biology, the efficacy of radiation therapy has gradually improved, and more and more patients have benefited from it. However, even with the use of advanced radiotherapy techniques, there are still many malignant tumor cells with low sensitivity to radiation, leading to the radiation effect is not ideal. To solve this problem, radiosensitizers have received more and more attention. Radiosensitizer is a kind of drug that can enhance the radiosensitivity of tumor cells and improve the effect of radiotherapy. Radiation sensitizers act in a variety of ways, such as killing hypoxic cells, enhancing DNA damage, inhibiting DNA damage repair, and blocking cell cycle progression, making tumor cells more susceptible to radiation damage and death than surrounding normal cells.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 0 compounds with definite reported radiosensitization. It can be used for drug combination research in anti-cancer treatment.

  • HY-L070
    1013 compounds

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by progressive dysfunction and death of neurons, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroprotection is an approach to preserve neurons so that neurons cannot be hurt by different pathological factors in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroprotectors are some agonists and antagonists targeting some key targets in neuroprotactive signal pathways, such as calcium and sodium channel blockers, GABA receptor agonists, NMDA receptor Antagonists, etc. Current neuroprotectors cannot reverse existing damage, but they may protect against further nerve damage and slow down any degeneration of the central nervous system (CNS) and still play important roles in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

    MCE offers a unique collection of 1013 compounds with potential neuroprotective activities. These compounds mainly act on some key targets in neuroprotetive signal pathways, such as calcium channel, sodium channel, adenosine A1 receptor, etc. MCE Neuroprotective Compopund Library is a useful tool in neuroprotective drug discovery.

  • HY-L168
    387 compounds

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane binding structures that are released from cells into the surrounding environment and play a crucial role in mediating and regulating intercellular communication related to physiological and pathological processes. EVs are lipid membrane vesicles composed of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. EVs can be divided into several types based on their source, such as extracellular vesicles, microcapsules, and apoptotic vesicles. The size range of exosomes is 30-150nm, which are endocrine in multi vesicular endosomes (MVEs); microvesicles (50-1000nm) are secreted directly through extracellular interactions, thereby releasing plasma membrane vesicles. In contrast, apoptotic bodies are usually larger, ranging in size from 1 to 5 μ m. This is generated during programmed cell death. EV plays a crucial role in transmitting information between cells and influencing the behavior and function of receptor cells.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 387 small molecules related to extracellular vesicles (EVs). It is a good tool to be used for research on metabolize, cancer and other diseases.

  • HY-L046
    1342 compounds

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels which include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, etc. CVDs are the number 1 cause of death globally. Smoking, unhealthy nutrition, aging population, lack of physical activity, arterial hypertension, or diabetes can promote cardiovascular disease like myocardial infarction or stroke. It is multifactorial and encompasses a multitude of mechanisms, such as eNOS uncoupling, reactive oxygen species formation, chronic inflammatory disorders and abnormal calcium homeostasis. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetes agents may reduce the cardiovascular disease risk.

    MCE supplies a unique collection of 1342 compounds with confirmed anti-cardiovascular activity. These compounds mainly target metabolic enzyme, membrane transporter, ion channel, inflammation related signaling pathways. MCE Anti-Cardiovascular Disease Compound Library can be used for cardiovascular diseases related research and high throughput and high content screening for new drugs.

  • HY-L069
    1318 compounds

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative brain disease which causes mental and physical decline, gradually resulting in death. Despite the significant public health issue that it poses, only few medical treatments have been approved for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and these act to control symptoms rather than alter the course of the disease. Discovery of new therapeutic approaches depends on the study of pathology of AD. Recent research findings have led to greater understanding of disease neurobiology in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and identification of unique targets for drug development. Several important mechanisms have been proposed to explain the underlying pathology of AD, such as Amyloid cascade hypothesis, Tau hypothesis and Cholinergic hypothesis, etc.

    MCE offers a unique collection of 1318 compounds with anti-Alzheimer’s Disease activities or targeting the unique targets of AD. MCE Anti-Alzheimer’s Disease Compound Library is a useful tool for exploring the mechanism of AD and discovering new drugs for AD.

  • HY-L054
    206 compounds

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributes to the production and folding of approximately one third of cellular proteins, and is thus inextricably linked to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and the fine balance between health and disease. However, some adverse factors negatively impact ER functions and protein synthesis, resulting in the activation of Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress, ERS) and unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. The UPR is triggered when ER protein folding capacity is overwhelmed by cellular demand and the UPR initially aims to restore ER homeostasis and normal cellular functions. However, if this fails, then the UPR triggers cell death. Chronic ER stress and defects in UPR signaling are emerging as key contributors to a growing list of human diseases, including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer.

    MCE Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Compound Library contains 206 ER stress-related compounds that mainly target PERK, IRE1, ATF6, etc. MCE ER stress library is a useful tool for researching ER stress and related diseases.

  • HY-L086
    2123 compounds

    Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and life-threatening conditions that result in progressive degeneration and/or death of nerve cells. Some common neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Motor Neuron Disease (MND), Huntington’s Disease (HD), Spino-Cerebellar Ataxia (SCA), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Because the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders is generally poorly understood, it is difficult to identify promising molecular targets and validate them. At the same time, about 85% of the drugs fail in clinical trials. Therefore, validating new targets and discovering new drugs to mitigate neurodegenerative disorders is need of the hour.

    MCE offers a unique collection of 2123 compounds with anti-Neurodegenerative Diseases activities or targeting the unique targets of neurodegenerative diseases. MCE Neurodegenerative Disease-related Compound Library is a useful tool for exploring the mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases and discovering new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases.

  • HY-L173
    1773 Compounds compounds

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death in female genital malignancies, with the highest mortality rate in female genital malignancies. It is characterized by difficulty in detection in the early stage of the disease, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. In fact, ovarian cancer includes many pathologic types. It is usually divided into epithelial ovarian cancer, malignant germ cell tumors and sex cord stromal tumors, of which epithelial ovarian cancer is the most dominant form. Clinical treatment of ovarian cancer prioritizes surgery combined with paclitaxel chemotherapy. However, due to the spread and drug resistance of tumor cells, the recurrence of ovarian cancer is high. In this case, combined with traditional methods, the development of new therapeutic agents can help to improve the treatment effect of ovarian cancer.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 1773 compounds with definite or potential anti-ovarian cancer activity, which mainly targeting the main targets of ovarian cancer such as PARP, ATM/ATR, VEGFR and HIF/HIF Prolyl-Hydroxylase, etc. It is an essential tool for development and research of anti-ovarian compounds.

  • HY-L174
    147 compounds

    Macrophages are effector cells of the innate immune system, engulfing bacteria and secreting pro-inflammatory and antibacterial mediators. They are an important component of the first line defense against pathogens and tumor cells. In addition, macrophages play an important role in eliminating damaged cells through programmed cell death. Like all immune cells, macrophages originate from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Macrophages play key functions in many physiological processes beyond homeostasis and innate immunity, including metabolic function, cell debris clearance, tissue repair, and remodeling. In order to fulfill their different functional roles, macrophages can polarize into a series of phenotypes, including classic (pro inflammatory, M1) and alternative (anti-inflammatory, healing promoting, M2) activation states, as well as a wide range of regulatory phenotypes and subtypes. Macrophages exist in all vertebrate tissues and have a dual function in host protection and tissue damage, maintaining a good balance.

    MCE designs a unique collection of 147 macrophage related compounds. It is a good tool to be used for research on Inflammation, cancer and other diseases.

  • HY-L101
    1733 compounds

    Liver cancer is one of the leading malignancies which occupies the second position in cancer deaths worldwide, becoming serious threat to human health. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also known as hepatoma is the most common type accounting for approximately 90% of all liver cancers.

    Current evidence indicates that during hepatocarcinogenesis, two main pathogenic mechanisms prevail: (1) cirrhosis associated with hepatic regeneration after tissue damage caused by hepatitis infection, toxins or metabolic influences, and (2) mutations occurring in single or multiple oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Both mechanisms have been linked with alterations in several important cellular signaling pathways. These include the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, WNT/b-catenin pathway, insulin-like growth factor pathway, c-MET/HGFR pathway , etc.

    MCE offers a unique collection of 1733 compounds with identified and potential anti-liver cancer activity. MCE anti-liver cancer compound library is a useful tool for anti-liver cancer drugs screening and other related research.

  • HY-L075
    1752 compounds

    Lung cancer is a major global health problem, as it is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is divided into two categories: small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85 percent of lung cancers.

    As with all cancers, lung cancer may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy or a combination thereof. Targeted therapy is one of the most exciting developments in lung cancer medicine, especially for NSCLC. Extensive genomic characterization of NSCLC has led to the identification of molecular subtypes of NSCLC that are oncogene addicted and exquisitely sensitive to targeted therapies. These include activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and BRAF or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions and ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase fusions. These are important targets for target therapy.

    MCE offers a unique collection of 1752 compounds with identified and potential anti-lung cancer activity. These compounds target lung cancer’s major targets and signaling pathways. MCE anti-lung cancer compound library is a useful tool for anti-lung cancer drugs screening and other related research.

  • HY-L074
    1846 compounds

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women, impacting 2.1 million women each year, and also causes the greatest number of cancer-related deaths among women. Surgery is usually the first type of treatment for breast cancer, which is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or targeted therapies, especially for metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, which is categorized into 3 major subtypes based on the presence or absence of molecular markers for estrogen or progesterone receptors and human epidermal growth factor 2 (ERBB2; formerly HER2): hormone receptor positive/ERBB2 negative (70% of patients), ERBB2 positive (15%-20%), and triple-negative (tumors lacking all 3 standard molecular markers; 15%). Different intrinsic subtypes exhibit different tumor behavior with different prognoses, and may require specific targeted therapies to maximize treatment effectiveness. Otherwise, some signaling pathways also play important roles in the development of breast cancer, such as NF-κB Signaling Pathway, TGF-beta Signaling Pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and Notch Signaling Pathway. These signaling pathways offer ideal targets for development of new targeted therapies for breast cancer.

    MCE supplies a unique collection of 1846 compounds with identified and potential anti-breast cancer activity. MCE Anti-Breast Cancer Compound Library is a useful tool for anti-breast cancer drugs screening.