|References on BAY 61-3606:
1 . Sanderson MP, Gelling SJ, Rippmann JF, Schnapp A.Comparison of the anti-allergic activity of Syk inhibitors with optimized Syk siRNAs in FcepsilonRI-activated RBL-2H3 basophilic cells.Cell Immunol. 2010;262(1):28-34. Epub 2009 Dec 14.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) binds ITAM-bearing receptors in a wide variety of cell types. One such example is the activation of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils via the stimulation of the FcepsilonRI receptor by IgE/allergen complexes. The possible role of Syk in inflammatory signaling cascades has led to the development of pharmacological agents designed to block the Syk catalytic domain as potential novel therapeutics. Whilst the enzymatic activity of Syk lends towards the design of small-molecule inhibitors, other attention has focused on the possibility of targeting Syk expression using anti-sense oligonucleotides as an alternate means of anti-inflammatory therapy. In this study, we compared the ability of multiple optimized Syk siRNA sequences and small-molecule Syk inhibitors to block FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction, degranulation and TNFalpha secretion in the basophilic cell line RBL-2H3. We also characterized the specificity of each siRNA sequence with regards to off-target induction of the interferon-inducible gene IFIT1. We identified a single siRNA sequence, which displayed a favorable profile of efficient Syk knockdown, blockage of FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction, degranulation and TNFalpha secretion and a lack of IFIT1 induction. The effect of this siRNA was comparable to that of the Syk kinase domain inhibitors BAY61-3606 and R406. The identification of an active and specific Syk siRNA could be a basis for the development of therapeutic Syk siRNAs against inflammatory diseases.
2 . Gioia R, Leroy C, Drullion C, Lagarde V, Etienne G, Dulucq S, Lippert E, Roche S, Mahon FX, Pasquet JM.Quantitative phosphoproteomics revealed interplay between Syk and Lyn in the resistance to nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.Blood. 2011 Aug 25;118(8):2211-21. Epub 2011 Jul 5.
In this study, we have addressed how Lyn kinase signaling mediates nilotinib-resistance by quantitative phospho-proteomics using Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acid in Cell culture. We have found an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of 2 additional tyrosine kinases in nilotinib-resistant cells: the spleen tyrosine kinase Syk and the UFO family receptor tyrosine kinase Axl. This increased tyrosine phosphorylation involved an interaction of these tyrosine kinases with Lyn. Inhibition of Syk by the inhibitors R406 or BAY 61-3606 or by RNA interference restored the capacity of nilotinib to inhibit cell proliferation. Conversely, coexpression of Lyn and Syk were required to fully induce resistance to nilotinib in drug-sensitive cells. Surprisingly, the knockdown of Syk also strongly decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of Lyn and Axl, thus uncovering interplay between Syk and Lyn. We have shown the involvement of the adaptor protein CDCP-1 in resistance to nilotinib. Interestingly, the expression of Axl and CDCP1 were found increased both in a nilotinib-resistant cell line and in nilotinib-resistant CML patients. We conclude that an oncogenic signaling mediated by Lyn and Syk can bypass the need of Bcr-Abl in CML cells. Thus, targeting these kinases may be of therapeutic value to override imatinib or nilotinib resistance in CML.
3 . Wang X, Mychajlowycz M, Lau C, Gutierrez C, Scott JA, Chow CW.Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates BEAS-2B cell migration and proliferation and human rhinovirus-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012 Feb;340(2):277-85. Epub 2011 Oct 26.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an immunoregulatory tyrosine kinase that was identified originally in leukocytes. It is a key regulator of innate immunity as well as hematopoietic cell differentiation and proliferation. A role for Syk in regulating normal cellular functions in nonhematopoietic cells is increasingly recognized. We have shown previously robust Syk expression in airway epithelium, where it regulates the early inflammatory response to human rhinovirus (HRV) infections, and HRV cell entry by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To test the hypothesis that Syk plays a role in modulating airway epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and production of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8, we studied the BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cell line and primary human airway epithelia from normal and asthmatic donors using Syk-specific pharmacologic inhibitors and small interfering RNA. Using an in vitro "wounding" model, we demonstrated significant impairment of "wound" closure after treatment with the Syk inhibitors N4-(2,2-dimethyl-3-oxo-4H-pyrid[1,4]oxazin-6-yl)-5-fluoro-N2-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2,4-pyrimidinediamine (R406) and 2-[7-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamino]-nicotinamide dihydrochloride (BAY61-3606), overexpression of the kinase-inactive Syk(K396R) mutant, and Syk knockdown by small interfering RNA. HRV infection also impaired wound healing, an effect that was partly Syk-dependent because wound healing was impaired further when HRV infection occurred in the presence of Syk inhibition. Further investigation of potential regulatory mechanisms revealed that inhibition of Syk suppressed HRV-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression while promoting the activation of caspase-3, a mediator of epithelial cell apoptosis. Together, these results indicate that Syk plays a role in promoting epithelial cell proliferation and migration, while mitigating the effects of apoptosis.
4 . Robak T, Robak E.Tyrosine kinase inhibitors as potential drugs for B-cell lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune disorders.Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012 Jul;21(7):921-47. Epub 2012 May 22.
INTRODUCTION: In the last few years, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been synthesized and become available for preclinical studies and clinical trials. This article summarizes recent achievements in the mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, and clinical activity and toxicity, as well as the emerging role of TKIs in lymphoid malignancies, allergic diseases, and autoimmune disorders. AREAS COVERED: A literature review was conducted of the MEDLINE database PubMed for articles in English. Publications from 2000 through January 2012 were scrutinized. The search terms used were Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitors, PCI-32765, GDC-0834, LFM-A13, AVL-101, AVL-292, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitors, R343, R406, R112, R788, fostamatinib, BAY-61-3606, C-61, piceatannol, Lyn, imatinib, nilotinib, bafetinib, dasatinib, GDC-0834, PP2, SU6656 in conjunction with lymphoid malignancy, NHL, CLL, autoimmune disease, allergic disease, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Conference proceedings from the previous 5 years of the American Society of Hematology, European Hematology Association, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and ACR/ARHP Annual Scientific Meetings were searched manually. Additional relevant publications were obtained by reviewing the references from the chosen articles. EXPERT OPINION: The use of TKIs, especially inhibitors of Btk, Syk, and Lyn, is a promising new strategy for targeted treatment of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, autoimmune disorders and allergic diseases. However, definitive data from ongoing and future clinical trials will aid in better defining the status of TKIs in the treatment of these disorders.
5 . Yamamoto, Noriyuki et al. The orally available spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor 2-[7-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamino]-nicotinamide dihydrochloride (BAY 61-3606) blocks antigen-induced airway inflammation in rodents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Sep;306(3):1174-81. Epub 2003 May 23.
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) tyrosine kinase plays essential roles in receptors for Fc portion of immunoglobulins and B cell receptor complex signaling in various inflammatory cells; therefore, inhibitors of Syk kinase may show potential as antiasthmatic/allergic therapeutics. We identified 2-[7-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-imidazo[1,2-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamino]-nicotinamide dihydrochloride (BAY 61-3606), a potent (Ki = 7.5 nM) and selective inhibitor of Syk kinase. BAY 61-3606 inhibited not only degranulation (IC50 values between 5 and 46 nM) but also lipid mediator and cytokine synthesis in mast cells. BAY 61-3606 was highly efficacious in basophils obtained from healthy human subjects (IC50 = 10 nM) and seems to be at least as potent in basophils obtained from atopic (high serum IgE) subjects (IC50 = 8.1 nM). ...