|References on LDN193189:
1 . Theurl I, Schroll A, Sonnweber T, Nairz M, Theurl M, Willenbacher W, Eller K, Wolf D, Seifert M, Sun CC, Babitt JL, Hong CC, Menhall T, Gearing P, Lin HY, Weiss G. Pharmacologic inhibition of hepcidin expression reverses anemia of chronic inflammation in rats. Blood. 2011 Nov 3;118(18):4977-84.
Anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI) is the most frequent anemia in hospitalized patients and is associated with significant morbidity. A major underlying mechanism of ACI is the retention of iron within cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), thus making the metal unavailable for efficient erythropoiesis. This reticuloendothelial iron sequestration is primarily mediated by excess levels of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin down-regulating the functional expression of the only known cellular iron export protein ferroportin resulting in blockade of iron egress from these cells. Using a well-established rat model of ACI, we herein provide novel evidence for effective treatment of ACI by blocking endogenous hepcidin production using the small molecule dorsomorphin derivative LDN-193189 or the protein soluble hemojuvelin-Fc (HJV.Fc) to inhibit bone morphogenetic protein-Smad mediated signaling required for effective hepcidin transcription. Pharmacologic inhibition of hepcidin expression results in mobilization of iron from the RES, stimulation of erythropoiesis and correction of anemia. Thus, hepcidin lowering agents are a promising new class of pharmacologic drugs to effectively combat ACI.
2 . Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein signaling reduces vascular calcification and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 Mar;32(3):613-22.
OBJECTIVE: The expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) is enhanced in human atherosclerotic and calcific vascular lesions. Although genetic gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mice have supported a causal role of BMP signaling in atherosclerosis and vascular calcification, it remains uncertain whether BMP signaling might be targeted pharmacologically to ameliorate both of these processes.METHODS AND RESULTS: We tested the impact of pharmacological BMP inhibition on atherosclerosis and calcification in LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. LDLR-/- mice fed a high-fat diet developed abundant vascular calcification within 20 weeks. Prolonged treatment of LDLR-/- mice with the small molecule BMP inhibitor LDN-193189 was well-tolerated and potently inhibited development of atheroma, as well as associated vascular inflammation, osteogenic activity, and calcification. Administration of recombinant BMP antagonist ALK3-Fc replicated the antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects of LDN-193189. Treatment of human aortic endothelial cells with LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc abrogated the production of reactive oxygen species induced by oxidized LDL, a known early event in atherogenesis. Unexpectedly, treatment of mice with LDN-193189 lowered LDL serum cholesterol by 35% and markedly decreased hepatosteatosis without inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase activity. Treatment with BMP2 increased, whereas LDN-193189 or ALK3-Fc inhibited apolipoprotein B100 secretion in HepG2 cells, suggesting that BMP signaling contributes to the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis.CONCLUSION: These results definitively implicate BMP signaling in atherosclerosis and calcification, while uncovering a previously unidentified role for BMP signaling in LDL cholesterol metabolism. BMP inhibition may be helpful in the treatment of atherosclerosis and associated vascular calcification.
3 . Peart TM, Correa RJ, Valdes YR, Dimattia GE, Shepherd TG. BMP signalling controls the malignant potential of ascites-derived human epithelial ovarian cancer spheroids via AKT kinase activation. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2012 Apr;29(4):293-313.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells have the ability to form multi-cellular aggregates in malignant ascites which dramatically alters cell signalling, survival, and metastatic potential. Herein, we demonstrate that patient ascites-derived EOC cells down-regulate endogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling by decreasing BMP ligand expression when grown in suspension culture to form spheroids. Enforced BMP signalling in these cells via constitutively-active BMP type I ALK3(QD) receptor expression causes the formation of smaller, more loosely-aggregated spheroids. Additionally, ALK3(QD)-expressing spheroids have an increased rate of adhesion and dispersion upon reattachment to substratum. Inhibition of endogenous BMP signalling using recombinant Noggin or small molecule inhibitor LDN-193189, on the other hand, opposed these phenotypic changes. To identify potential targets that impact the phenotype of EOC spheroids due to activated BMP signalling, we performed genome-wide expression analyses using Affymetrix arrays. Using the online Connectivity Map resource, the BMP signalling gene expression signature revealed that the AKT pathway is induced by activated BMP signalling in EOC cells; this finding was further validated by phospho-AKT immuno-blotting. In fact, treatment of EOC spheroids with an AKT inhibitor, Akti-1/2, reduced BMP-stimulated cell dispersion during reattachment as compared to controls. Thus, we have identified AKT as being one important downstream component of activated BMP signalling on EOC spheroid pathobiology, which may have important implications on the metastatic potential of this malignancy.
4 . Cuny GD, Yu PB, Laha JK, Xing X, Liu JF, Lai CS, Deng DY, Sachidanandan C, Bloch KD, Peterson RT. Structure-activity relationship study of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008 Aug 1;18(15):4388-92.
A structure-activity relationship study of dorsomorphin, a previously identified inhibitor of SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 1 receptors ALK2, 3, and 6, revealed that increased inhibitory activity could be accomplished by replacing the pendent 4-pyridine ring with 4-quinoline. The activity contributions of various nitrogen atoms in the core pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine ring were also examined by preparing and evaluating pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrimidine and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine derivatives. In addition, increased mouse liver microsome stability was achieved by replacing the ether substituent on the pendent phenyl ring with piperazine. Finally, an optimized compound 13 (LDN-193189 or DM-3189) demonstrated moderate pharmacokinetic characteristics (e.g., plasma t(1/2)=1.6h) following intraperitoneal administration in mice. These studies provide useful molecular probes for examining the in vivo pharmacology of BMP signaling inhibition.
5 . Boergermann JH, Kopf J, Yu PB, Knaus P. Dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 inhibit BMP-mediated Smad, p38 and Akt signalling in C2C12 cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010 Nov;42(11):1802-7.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key regulators of cell fate decisions during embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. BMPs signal through a coordinated assembly of two types of transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors to induce Smad1/5/8 plus non-Smad pathways, such as MAPK and Akt. The recent discovery of BMP receptor inhibitors opened new avenues to study specific BMP signalling and to delineate this effect from TGF-β and Activin signalling. Here we present comprehensive and quantitative analyses on both canonical and non-Smad mediated BMP signalling under Dorsomorphin (DM) and LDN-193189 (LDN) treatment conditions. We demonstrate for the first time, that both compounds affect not only the Smad but also the non-Smad signalling pathways induced by either BMP2, BMP6 or GDF5. The activation of p38, ERK1/2 and Akt in C2C12 cells was inhibited by DM and LDN. In addition "off-target" effects on all branches of BMP non-Smad signalling are presented. From this we conclude that the inhibition of BMP receptors by DM and more efficiently by LDN-193189 affects all known BMP induced signalling cascades.