|References on Foretinib:
1 . Dufies M, Jacquel A, Robert G, Cluzeau T, Puissant A, Fenouille N, Legros L, Raynaud S, Cassuto JP, Luciano F, Auberger P.Mechanism of action of the multikinase inhibitor Foretinib.Cell Cycle. 2011 Dec 1;10(23):4138-48. Epub 2011 Dec 1.
Mitotic catastrophe (MC) is induced when stressed cells enter prematurely or inappropriately into mitosis and can be caused by ionizing radiation and anticancer drugs. Foretinib is a multikinase inhibitor whose mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We investigated here the effect of Foretinib on chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell lines either sensitive (IM-S) or resistant (IM-R) to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib. Foretinib decreased viability and clonogenic potential of IM-S and IM-R CML cells as well. Foretinib-treated cells exhibited increased size, spindle assembly checkpoint anomalies and enhanced ploidy that collectively evoked mitotic catastrophe (MC). Accordingly, Foretinib-stimulated CML cells displayed decreased expression of Cdk1, Cyclin B1 and Plk1. In addition, Foretinib triggered caspase-2 activation that precedes mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Accordingly, z-VAD-fmk and a caspase-2 siRNA abolished Foretinib-mediated cell death but failed to affect MC, indicating that Foretinib-mediated apoptosis and MC are two independent events. Anisomycin, a JNK activator, impaired Foretinib-induced MC and inhibition or knockdown of JNK phenotyped its effect on MC. Moreover, we found that Foretinib acted as a potent inhibitor of JNK. Importantly, Foretinib exhibited no or very little effect on normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocytes or melanocytes cells but efficiently inhibited the clonogenic potential of CD34+ cell from CML patients. Collectively, our data show that the multikinase inhibitor Foretinib induces MC in CML cells and other cell lines via JNK-dependent inhibition of Plk1 expression and triggered apoptosis by a caspase 2-mediated mechanism. This unusual mechanism of action may have important implications for the treatment of cancer.
2 . Zillhardt M, Park SM, Romero IL, Sawada K, Montag A, Krausz T, Yamada SD, Peter ME, Lengyel E.Foretinib (GSK1363089), an orally available multikinase inhibitor of c-Met and VEGFR-2, blocks proliferation, induces anoikis, and impairs ovarian cancer metastasis.Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Jun 15;17(12):4042-51. Epub 2011 May 6.
PURPOSE: Currently, there are no approved targeted therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer, despite the fact that it is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. One proposed target is c-Met, which has been shown to be an important prognostic indicator in a number of malignancies, including ovarian cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether an orally available multikinase inhibitor of c-Met and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (foretinib, GSK1363089) blocks ovarian cancer growth. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of foretinib was tested in a genetic mouse model of endometrioid ovarian cancer, several ovarian cancer cell lines, and an organotypic 3D model of the human omentum...
3 . Kataoka Y, Mukohara T, Tomioka H, Funakoshi Y, Kiyota N, Fujiwara Y, Yashiro M, Hirakawa K, Hirai M, Minami H.Foretinib (GSK1363089), a multi-kinase inhibitor of MET and VEGFRs, inhibits growth of gastric cancer cell lines by blocking inter-receptor tyrosine kinase networks.Invest New Drugs. 2012 Aug;30(4):1352-60. Epub 2011 Jun 8.
To explore the mechanism of action of foretinib (GSK1363089), an oral multi-kinase inhibitor known to target MET, RON, AXL, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), in gastric cancer, we evaluated the effects of the agent on cell growth and cell signaling in the following panel of gastric cancer cell lines: KATO-III, MKN-1, MKN-7, MKN-45, and MKN-74. Of these, only MKN-45 and KATO-III, which harbor MET and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) amplification, respectively, were highly sensitive to foretinib. In MKN-45, 1 μM of foretinib or PHA665752, another MET kinase inhibitor, inhibited phosphorylation of MET and downstream signaling molecules as expected. In KATO-III, however, PHA665752 inhibited phosphorylation of MET independently of downstream molecules. Further, 1 μM of foretinib or PD173074, a selective FGFR kinase inhibitor, inhibited phosphorylation of FGFR2 and downstream molecules, suggesting that foretinib targets FGFR2 in KATO-III. We confirmed this novel activity of foretinib against FGFR2 in OCUM-2M, another FGFR2-amplified gastric cancer cell line. Using a phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, we found that foretinib inhibits phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER3 and FGFR3 via MET inhibition in MKN-45, and EGFR, HER3 and MET via FGFR2 inhibition in KATO-III. Knockdown of HER3 and FGFR3 in MKN-45 with siRNA resulted in the partial inhibition of cell signaling and cell growth. In conclusion, foretinib appears effective against gastric cancer cells harboring not only MET but also FGFR2 amplification, and exerts its inhibitory effects by blocking inter-RTK signaling networks with MET or FGFR2 at their core.
4 . Huynh H, Ong R, Soo KC.Foretinib demonstrates anti-tumor activity and improves overall survival in preclinical models of hepatocellular carcinoma.Angiogenesis. 2012 Mar;15(1):59-70. Epub 2011 Dec 21.
PURPOSE OF STUDY: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death. Although sorafenib has been shown to improve survival of patients with advanced HCC, this improvement is modest and patients eventually have refractory disease. The purpose of this study is to assess the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities of foretinib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and c-Met inhibitor using mouse models of human HCC. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES: SK-HEP1 and 21-0208 HCC cells as well as patient-derived HCC models were employed to study the anti-tumor and antiangiogenic activities of foretinib. Changes of biomarkers relevant to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling pathways were determined by Western blotting. Microvessel density, apoptosis and cell proliferation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
5 . Seiwert T, Sarantopoulos J, Kallender H, McCallum S, Keer HN, Blumenschein G Jr.Phase II trial of single-agent foretinib (GSK1363089) in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.Invest New Drugs. 2012 Aug 24.
Background Foretinib is a small-molecule, oral multikinase inhibitor primarily targeting the mesenchymal epithelial transition (MET) factor receptor, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We conducted a phase II study to evaluate the single-agent activity and tolerability of foretinib in patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods An open-label, single-arm, multicenter trial employing a Simon 2-stage design was conducted with a total of 41 patients planned for the study. One or more responses in the first 14 patients were required in order to progress to the second stage. Foretinib was administered as 240 mg orally for 5 consecutive days of a 14-day treatment cycle (5/9 schedule) to patients with recurrent and/or metastatic SCCHN. Results Fourteen patients were enrolled. The study did not meet criteria for continuing to the second stage. A maximum of 30 cycles were administered (median?=?4.0). Fifty percent of patients (7/14) showed stable disease (SD), 43 % of patients (6/14) experienced tumor shrinkage and two patients had prolonged disease stabilization for ≥13 months. The most common adverse events were fatigue, constipation and hypertension, which were manageable with additional medication or adjustments to the dosing schedule. Conclusion Foretinib 240 mg on a 5/9 schedule was generally well tolerated. SD was the best-observed outcome, with minor tumor shrinkage detected in nearly half of all patients. The efficacy results, prolonged disease stabilization and tolerable side-effect profile, support further investigation, possibly in combination with other targeted agents or cytotoxic chemotherapy for SCCHN.