|References on PF-3845:
1 . Long JZ, LaCava M, Jin X, Cravatt BF.An anatomical and temporal portrait of physiological substrates for fatty acid amide hydrolase.J Lipid Res. 2011 Feb;52(2):337-44. Epub 2010 Nov 19.
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) regulates amidated lipid transmitters, including the endocannabinoid anandamide and its N-acyl ethanolamine (NAE) congeners and transient receptor potential channel agonists N-acyl taurines (NATs). Using both the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 and FAAH(-/-) mice, we present a global analysis of changes in NAE and NAT metabolism caused by FAAH disruption in central and peripheral tissues. Elevations in anandamide (and other NAEs) were tissue dependent, with the most dramatic changes occurring in brain, testis, and liver of PF-3845-treated or FAAH(-/-) mice. Polyunsaturated NATs accumulated to very high amounts in the liver, kidney, and plasma of these animals. The NAT profile in brain tissue was markedly different and punctuated by significant increases in long-chain NATs found exclusively in FAAH(-/-), but not in PF-3845-treated animals. Suspecting that this difference might reflect a slow pathway for NAT biosynthesis, we treated mice chronically with PF-3845 for 6 days and observed robust elevations in brain NATs. These studies, taken together, define the anatomical and temporal features of FAAH-mediated NAE and NAT metabolism, which are complemented and probably influenced by kinetically distinguishable biosynthetic pathways that produce these lipids in vivo.
2 . Ghosh S, Wise LE, Chen Y, Gujjar R, Mahadevan A, Cravatt BF, Lichtman AH.The monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 suppresses inflammatory pain in the mouse carrageenan model.Life Sci. 2012 Jun 28.
AIM: The present study tested whether the selective monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor JZL184 would reduce allodynia and paw edema in the carrageenan test. MAIN METHODS: The anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 were compared to those of PF-3845, an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and diclofenac, a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Cannabinoid receptor involvement in the anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 was evaluated by administration of the respective CB(1) and CB(2) receptor antagonists rimonabant and SR144528 as well as with CB(1)(-/-) and CB(2)(-/-) mice. JZL184 (1.6, 4, 16, or 40mg/kg) was administered for six days to assess tolerance. KEY FINDINGS: JZL184 administered before or after carrageenan significantly attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema and mechanical allodynia. Complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches revealed that the anti-allodynic effects of JZL184 required both CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, but only CB(2) receptors mediated its anti-edematous actions. Importantly, both the anti-edematous and anti-allodynic effects underwent tolerance following repeated injections of high dose JZL184 (16 or 40mg/kg), but repeated administration of low dose JZL184 (4mg/kg) retained efficacy. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 reduces inflammatory nociception through the activation of both CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, with no evidence of tolerance following repeated administration of low doses.
3 . Wiskerke J, Irimia C, Cravatt BF, De Vries TJ, Schoffelmeer AN, Pattij T, Parsons LH.Characterization of the effects of reuptake and hydrolysis inhibition on interstitial endocannabinoid levels in the brain: an in vivo microdialysis study.ACS Chem Neurosci. 2012 May 16;3(5):407-17. Epub 2012 Apr 22.
The present experiments employed in vivo microdialysis to characterize the effects of commonly used endocannabinoid clearance inhibitors on basal and depolarization-induced alterations in interstitial endocannabinoid levels in the nucleus accumbens of rat brain. Compounds targeting the putative endocannabinoid transporter and hydrolytic enzymes (FAAH and MAGL) were compared. The transporter inhibitor AM404 modestly enhanced depolarization-induced increases in 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) levels but did not alter levels of N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamide (anandamide, AEA). The transport inhibitor UCM707 did not alter dialysate levels of either endocannabinoid. The FAAH inhibitors URB597 and PF-3845 robustly increased AEA levels during depolarization without altering 2-AG levels. The MAGL inhibitor URB602 significantly enhanced depolarization-induced increases in 2-AG, but did not alter AEA levels. In contrast, the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 did not alter 2-AG or AEA levels under any condition tested. Finally, the dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor JZL195 significantly enhanced depolarization-induced increases in both AEA and 2-AG levels. In contrast to the present observations in rats, prior work in mice has demonstrated a robust JZL184-induced enhancement of depolarization-induced increases in dialysate 2-AG. Thus, to further investigate species differences, additional tests with JZL184, PF-3845, and JZL195 were performed in mice. Consistent with prior reports, JZL184 significantly enhanced depolarization-induced increases in 2-AG without altering AEA levels. PF-3845 and JZL195 produced profiles in mouse dialysates comparable to those observed in rats. These findings confirm that interstitial endocannabinoid levels in the brain can be selectively manipulated by endocannabinoid clearance inhibitors. While PF-3845 and JZL195 produce similar effects in both rats and mice, substantial species differences in JZL184 efficacy are evident, which is consistent with previous studies.
4 . Booker L, Kinsey SG, Abdullah RA, Blankman JL, Long JZ, Ezzili C, Boger DL, Cravatt BF, Lichtman AH.The fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor PF-3845 acts in the nervous system to reverse LPS-induced tactile allodynia in mice.Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Apr;165(8):2485-96.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory pain presents a problem of clinical relevance and often elicits allodynia, a condition in which non-noxious stimuli are perceived as painful. One potential target to treat inflammatory pain is the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system, which is comprised of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and several endogenous ligands, including anandamide (AEA). Blockade of the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) elevates AEA levels and elicits antinociceptive effects, without the psychomimetic side effects associated with Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Allodynia was induced by intraplantar injection of LPS. Complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to determine the strategy of blocking FAAH to reverse LPS-induced allodynia. Endocannabinoid levels were quantified using mass spectroscopy analyses. KEY RESULTS: FAAH (-/-) mice or wild-type mice treated with FAAH inhibitors (URB597, OL-135 and PF-3845) displayed an anti-allodynic phenotype. Furthermore, i.p. PF-3845 increased AEA levels in the brain and spinal cord. Additionally, intraplantar PF-3845 produced a partial reduction in allodynia. However, the anti-allodynic phenotype was absent in mice expressing FAAH exclusively in the nervous system under a neural specific enolase promoter, implicating the involvement of neuronal fatty acid amides (FAAs). The anti-allodynic effects of FAAH-compromised mice required activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors, but other potential targets of FAA substrates (i.e. μ-opioid, TRPV1 and PPARα receptors) had no apparent role. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: AEA is the primary FAAH substrate reducing LPS-induced tactile allodynia. Blockade of neuronal FAAH reverses allodynia through the activation of both cannabinoid receptors and represents a promising target to treat inflammatory pain. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7.
5 . Ahn et al (2009) Discovery and characterization of a highly selective FAAH inhibitor that reduces inflammatory pain. Chem.Biol. 16 411.
Endocannabinoids are lipid signaling molecules that regulate a wide range of mammalian behaviors, including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional state. The endocannabinoid anandamide is principally degraded by the integral membrane enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), and there is currently much interest in developing FAAH inhibitors to augment endocannabinoid signaling in vivo. Here, we report the discovery and detailed characterization of a highly efficacious and selective FAAH inhibitor, PF-3845. Mechanistic and structural studies confirm that PF-3845 is a covalent inhibitor that carbamylates FAAH's serine nucleophile. PF-3845 selectively inhibits FAAH in vivo, as determined by activity-based protein profiling; raises brain anandamide levels for up to 24 hr; and produces significant cannabinoid receptor-dependent reductions in inflammatory pain. These data thus designate PF-3845 as a valuable pharmacological tool for in vivo characterization of the endocannabinoid system.