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HY-12137 (BI 6727; BI-6727; BI6727)
|>1000 mg||Get quote|
Volasertib is a highly potent Polo-like kinase inhibitor with an IC50 of 0 .87 nM.
1 . Sch?ffski P.Polo-like kinase (PLK) inhibitors in preclinical and early clinical development in oncology.Oncologist. 2009 Jun;14(6):559-70. Epub 2009 May 27.
Polo-like kinases (PLKs) are a group of highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases that play a key role in processes such as cell division and checkpoint regulation of mitosis. About 80% of human tumors, of various origins, express high levels of PLK transcripts. However, PLK mRNA is mostly absent in surrounding healthy tissues. Overexpression of PLK is associated with a poor prognosis in several tumor types and a lower overall survival rate. The overexpression of PLKs in human tumors, but not in healthy nondividing cells, makes them an attractive, selective target for cancer drug development. PLK inhibitors interfere with different stages of mitosis, such as centrosome maturation, spindle formation, chromosome separation, and cytokinesis. They induce mitotic chaos and severely perturb cell cycle progression, eventually leading to cancer cell death. Several PLK inhibitors are in development and are undergoing evaluations as potential cancer treatments. This review includes an overview of PLK inhibitors in early clinical development (i.e., BI 2536, BI 6727, GSK461364, ON 019190.Na, and HMN-214) and in advanced preclinical development (i.e., ZK-thiazolidinone, NMS-1, CYC-800, DAP-81, and LC-445). If proof of principle is confirmed in large studies, PLK inhibitors will offer a new targeted antitumor therapy for cancer patients.
2 . Sanhaji M, Kreis NN, Zimmer B, Berg T, Louwen F, Yuan J. p53 is not directly relevant to the response of Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors.Cell Cycle. 2012 Feb 1;11(3):543-53. Epub 2012 Feb 1.
Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is elementary for cell proliferation and its deregulation is involved in tumorigenesis. Plk1 has been established as one of the most attractive targets for molecular cancer therapy. In fact, multiple small molecule inhibitors targeting either the kinase domain or the Polo-box binding domain (PBD) of Plk1 have been identified and intensively investigated. Intriguingly, Plk1 depletion affects more cancer cells than normal cells. It is also reported that the cytotoxicity induced by Plk1 inhibition is elevated in cancer cells with defective p53. The data lead to the hypothesis that p53 might be a predictive marker for the response of Plk1 inhibition. In this study, we demonstrate that there is no obvious different cytotoxic response between cancer cells with and without functional p53, including the isogenic colon cancer cell lines HCT116p53(+/+) and HCT116p53(-/-), breast cancer cell line MCF7, lung cancer cell line A549 and cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa, after treatment with either siRNA against Plk1, the kinase domain inhibitors BI 2536 and BI 6727 or the PBD inhibitor Poloxin. We suggest that the p53 status is not a predictor for the response of Plk1 inhibition, at least not directly. Yet, the long-term outcomes of losing p53, such as genome instability, could be associated with the cytotoxicity of Plk1 inhibition. Further studies are required to investigate whether other circumstances of cancer cells, such as DNA replication/damage stress, mitotic stress, and metabolic stress, which make possibly the survival of cancer cells more dependent on Plk1 function, are responsible for the sensitivity of Plk1 inhibition.
3 . Rudolph D, Steegmaier M, Hoffmann M, Grauert M, Baum A, Quant J, Haslinger C, Garin-Chesa P, Adolf GR.BI 6727, a Polo-like kinase inhibitor with improved pharmacokinetic profile and broad antitumor activity.Clin Cancer Res. 2009 May 1;15(9):3094-102. Epub 2009 Apr 21.
PURPOSE: Antimitotic chemotherapy remains a cornerstone of multimodality treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancers. To identify novel mitosis-specific agents with higher selectivity than approved tubulin-binding agents (taxanes, Vinca alkaloids), we have generated inhibitors of Polo-like kinase 1, a target that functions predominantly in mitosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The first compound in this series, suitable for i.v. administration, has entered clinical development. To fully explore the potential of Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition in oncology, we have profiled additional compounds and now describe a novel clinical candidate. RESULTS: BI 6727 is a highly potent (enzyme IC(50) = 0.87 nmol/L, EC(50) = 11-37 nmol/L on a panel of cancer cell lines) and selective dihydropteridinone with distinct properties. First, BI 6727 has a pharmacokinetic profile favoring sustained exposure of tumor tissues with a high volume of distribution and a long terminal half-life in mice (V(ss) = 7.6 L/kg, t(1/2) = 46 h) and rats (V(ss) = 22 L/kg, t(1/2) = 54 h). Second, BI 6727 has physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties that allow in vivo testing of i.v. as well as oral formulations, adding flexibility to dosing schedules. Finally, BI 6727 shows marked antitumor activity in multiple cancer models, including a model of taxane-resistant colorectal cancer. With oral and i.v. routes of administration, the total weekly dose of BI 6727 is most relevant for efficacy, supporting the use of a variety of well-tolerated dosing schedules. CONCLUSION: These findings warrant further investigation of BI 6727 as a tailored antimitotic agent; clinical studies have been initiated.
4 . Sch?ffski P, Awada A, Dumez H, Gil T, Bartholomeus S, Wolter P, Taton M, Fritsch H, Glomb P, Munzert G.A phase I, dose-escalation study of the novel Polo-like kinase inhibitor volasertib (BI 6727) in patients with advanced solid tumours.Eur J Cancer. 2012 Jan;48(2):179-86. Epub 2011 Nov 24.
BACKGROUND: Volasertib (BI 6727) is a potent and selective cell-cycle kinase inhibitor that induces mitotic arrest and apoptosis by targeting Polo-like kinase (Plk). This phase I dose-escalation study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of volasertib, safety and efficacy, and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. METHODS: This trial followed an open-label, toxicity-guided dose-titration design. Patients with progressive advanced or metastatic solid tumours received a single 1-h infusion of volasertib every 3 weeks. A total of 65 patients were treated at doses of 12-450 mg. RESULTS: Reversible haematological toxicity was the main side-effect; thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia constituting the main dose-limiting events. Anaemia (all grades 22%; grade 3: 8%), neutropenia (15%; grade 3/4: 14%), fatigue (15%; grade 3: 2%), and thrombocytopenia (14%; grade 3/4: 14%) were the most frequent drug-related adverse events. The MTD was 400mg; however, 300 mg was the recommended dose for further development based on overall tolerability. Three patients achieved confirmed partial response. Stable disease as best response was reported in 40% of patients. Two patients remained progression free for >1 year. PK analysis showed no indication of deviation from 'dose-linear PK' behaviour, a large volume of distribution (>4000 l), moderate clearance and a long half-life (~111 h)...
5 . Grinshtein N et al. Small molecule kinase inhibitor screen identifies polo-like kinase 1 as a target for neuroblastoma tumor-initiating cells. Cancer Res. 2011 Feb 15;71(4):1385-95.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an often fatal pediatric tumor of neural crest origin. We previously isolated NB tumor-initiating cells (NB TIC) from bone marrow metastases that resemble cancer stem cells and form metastatic NB in immunodeficient animals with as few as ten cells. To identify signaling pathways important for the survival and self-renewal of NB TICs and potential therapeutic targets, we screened a small molecule library of 143 protein kinase inhibitors, including 33 in clinical trials. Cytostatic or cytotoxic drugs were identified that targeted PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt, PKC (protein kinase C), Aurora, ErbB2, Trk, and Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). Treatment with PLK1 siRNA or low nanomolar concentrations of BI 2536 or BI 6727, PLK1 inhibitors in clinical trials for adult malignancies, were cytotoxic to TICs whereas only micromolar concentrations of the inhibitors were cytotoxic for normal pediatric neural stem cells. ...
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