|References on Dovitinib:
1 . Huynh H, Chow PK, Tai WM, Choo SP, Chung AY, Ong HS, Soo KC, Ong R, Linnartz R, Shi MM.Dovitinib demonstrates antitumor and antimetastatic activities in xenograft models of hepatocellular carcinoma.J Hepatol. 2012 Mar;56(3):595-601. Epub 2011 Oct 23.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death. Although sorafenib has been shown to improve survival of patients with advanced HCC, this improvement is modest and patients eventually have refractory disease. This study aims at investigating the antitumor, antiangiogenesis and antimetastatic activities of dovitinib in preclinical models of HCC. METHODS: 21-0208 and SK-HEP1 cells as well as patient-derived HCC models were employed to study the antitumor effect of dovitinib. Changes of biomarkers relevant to FGFR/VEGFR/PDGFR pathways were determined by Western blotting. Microvessel density, apoptosis and cell proliferation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
2 . Tai WT, Cheng AL, Shiau CW, Liu CY, Ko CH, Lin MW, Chen PJ, Chen KF.Dovitinib induces apoptosis and overcomes sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma through SHP-1-mediated inhibition of STAT3.Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Feb;11(2):452-63. Epub 2011 Dec 16.
The multiple kinase inhibitor dovitinib is currently under clinical investigation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the mechanistic basis for the effects of dovitinib in HCCs. Dovitinib showed significant antitumor activity in HCC cell lines PLC5, Hep3B, Sk-Hep1, and Huh-7. Dovitinib downregulated phospho-STAT3 (p-STAT3) at tyrosine 705 and subsequently reduced the levels of expression of STAT3-related proteins Mcl-1, survivin, and cyclin D1 in a time-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of STAT3 abolished the apoptotic effect of dovitinib, indicating that STAT3 is indispensable in mediating the effect of dovitinib in HCC. SHP-1 inhibitor reversed downregulation of p-STAT3 and apoptosis induced by dovitinib, and silencing of SHP-1 by RNA interference abolished the effects of dovitinib on p-STAT3, indicating that SHP-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase, mediates the effects of dovitinib. Notably, dovitinib increased SHP-1 activity in HCC cells. Incubation of dovitinib with pure SHP-1 protein enhanced its phosphatase activity, indicating that dovitinib upregulates the activity of SHP-1 via direct interactions. In addition, dovitinib induced apoptosis in two sorafenib-resistant cell lines through inhibition of STAT3, and sorafenib-resistant cells showed significant activation of STAT3, suggesting that targeting STAT3 may be a useful approach to overcome drug resistance in HCC. Finally, in vivo, dovitinib significantly suppressed growth of both Huh-7 and PLC5 xenograft tumors and downregulated p-STAT3 by increasing SHP-1 activity. In conclusion, dovitinib induces significant apoptosis in HCC cells and sorafenib-resistant cells via SHP-1-mediated inhibition of STAT3.
3 . Wang X, Kay A, Anak O, Angevin E, Escudier B, Zhou W, Feng Y, Dugan M, Schran H.Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling to Assist Dosing Schedule Selection for Dovitinib.J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Jan 27.
Dovitinib is an oral multitargeted kinase inhibitor with potent activity against receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Initial phase 1 to 2 studies of dovitinib using a continuous daily dosing schedule has shown that dovitinib exhibits a prolonged and overproportional increase in dose and exposure relationship above 400 mg/d. To address this, intermittent dosing schedules were explored using a model-based approach. A semi-mechanistic population pharmcokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PD) model was developed from 4 dovitinib phase 1 studies with daily dosing schedules. Autoinduction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) responsible for dovitinib metabolism was described using an indirect response model. Simulation of dovitinib plasma concentration profiles following 4 intermittent dosing schedules suggested that intermittent dosing could prevent prolonged drug accumulation. Based on the simulated plasma profiles, PD response, and patient compliance, a 5-days-on/2-days-off intermittent dosing schedule was selected for a phase 1 to 2 clinical study. The observed dovitinib plasma concentrations in this study confirmed the model predictions. Furthermore, dovitinib was well tolerated, and antitumor activity was observed as well in this new study. The 5-days-on/2-days-off dosing schedule is currently used in a dovitinib registration trial and other clinical trials.
4 . Sivanand S, Pe?a-Llopis S, Zhao H, Kucejova B, Spence P, Pavia-Jimenez A, Yamasaki T, McBride DJ, Gillen J, Wolff NC, Morlock L, Lotan Y, Raj GV, Sagalowsky A, Margulis V, Cadeddu JA, Ross MT, Bentley DR, Kabbani W, Xie XJ, Kapur P, Williams NS, Brugarolas J.A validated tumorgraft model reveals activity of dovitinib against renal cell carcinoma.Sci Transl Med. 2012 Jun 6;4(137):137ra75.
Most anticancer drugs entering clinical trials fail to achieve approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Drug development is hampered by the lack of preclinical models with therapeutic predictive value. Herein, we report the development and validation of a tumorgraft model of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its application to the evaluation of an experimental drug. Tumor samples from 94 patients were implanted in the kidneys of mice without additives or disaggregation. Tumors from 35 of these patients formed tumorgrafts, and 16 stable lines were established. Samples from metastatic sites engrafted at higher frequency than those from primary tumors, and stable engraftment of primary tumors in mice correlated with decreased patient survival. Tumorgrafts retained the histology, gene expression, DNA copy number alterations, and more than 90% of the protein-coding gene mutations of the corresponding tumors. As determined by the induction of hypercalcemia in tumorgraft-bearing mice, tumorgrafts retained the ability to induce paraneoplastic syndromes. In studies simulating drug exposures in patients, RCC tumorgraft growth was inhibited by sunitinib and sirolimus (the active metabolite of temsirolimus in humans), but not by erlotinib, which was used as a control. Dovitinib, a drug in clinical development, showed greater activity than sunitinib and sirolimus. The routine incorporation of models recapitulating the molecular genetics and drug sensitivities of human tumors into preclinical programs has the potential to improve oncology drug development.
5 . Kim KB, Chesney J, Robinson D, Gardner H, Shi MM, Kirkwood JM.Phase I/II and pharmacodynamic study of dovitinib (TKI258), an inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors and VEGF receptors, in patients with advanced melanoma.Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Dec 1;17(23):7451-61. Epub 2011 Oct 5.
PURPOSE: Dovitinib (TKI258) is an orally available inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), VEGF, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. This phase I/II dose-escalation study was conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary efficacy of dovitinib in the treatment of advanced melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced melanoma resistant or refractory to standard therapies or for whom no standard therapy was available were enrolled. Dovitinib was administered at doses ranging from 200 to 500 mg/d...