Signaling Pathway

Cytoskeleton

Cytoskeleton

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The cytoskeleton is a cellular 'scaffolding' or 'skeleton' contained within the cytoplasm. It is a dynamic structure that maintains cell shape, enables cellular motion[1]. The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filaments that is involved in virtually every cellular process[2].

Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeletonmotors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons[3].

Dynamin, a GTPase essential for endocytosis, is also involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling and is localized to podosomes where it has a role in actin turnover. Dynamin, Cbl, and Src coordinately participate in signaling complexes that are important in the assembly and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, leading to changes in osteoclast adhesion, migration, and resorption[4].

References:

[1] Lannert H, et al. Changes in phosphorylation and dephosphorylation status of cytoskeleton and their regulator proteins in CD34+ stem cells after G-CSF stimulation and in AML. J Clin Oncol. 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22067.

[2] Appaduray MA, et al. Recruitment Kinetics of Tropomyosin Tpm3.1 to Actin Filament Bundles in the Cytoskeleton Is Independent of Actin Filament Kinetics. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 15;11(12):e0168203.

[3] Xiao Q, et al. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron. Int J Biol Sci. 2016 Jul 18;12(9):1083-92.

[4] Bruzzaniti A, et al. Dynamin forms a Src kinase-sensitive complex with Cbl and regulates podosomes and osteoclast activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2005 Jul;16(7):3301-13.

 

Targets List in Cytoskeleton