1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Autophagy
  3. Autophagy

Autophagy

Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation and recycling process in the lysosome. In mammalian cells, there are three primary types of autophagy: microautophagy, macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Microphagy captures cargoes by means of invaginations or protrusions of the lysosomal membrane directly, CMA uses chaperones to identify cargo proteins and then unfolds and transfers them into the lysosomal, while macroautophagy sequesters cargo by autophagosomes-de novo synthesized of double-membrane vesicles-and subsequently transport it to the lysosome.

Macroautophagy is the best studied and it occurs at a low level constitutively and can also be further induced under stress conditions, such as nutrient or energy starvation with a salient feature of autophagy protein degradation. Stress-induced macrophagy plays an important role in protein catabolism with another key protein degradation pathway, the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS).

As the study progressed, autophagy gains its importance under basal, nutrient-rich conditions, and is now recognized as a critical housekeeping pathway in catabolism of diverse cellular constituents, such as protein aggregates (aggrephagy), lipid droplets (lipophagy), iron complex (Ferritinophagy) and carbohydrate. Except for macromolecules, autophagy can also target several organelles and structures, such as mitochondria (mitophagy), peroxisome (pexophagy), endoplasmic reticulum (reticulophagy or ER-phagy), ribosome (ribophagy), spermatozoon-inherited organelles following fertilization (allophagy), secretory granules within pancreatic cells (zymophagy) and intracellular pathogens (xenophagy).

Autophagy and its dysfunction are associated with a variety of human pathologies, including ageing, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, heart disease and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Plenty of drugs and natural products are involved in autophagy modulation through multiple signaling pathways. Small molecules that can regulate autophagy seem to have great potential to intervene such diseases in animal models or clinical courses.

Autophagy Related Products (1496):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-13259
    MG-132
    Inducer ≥98.0%
    MG-132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al) is a potent proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 100 nM and 1.2 μM, respectively. MG-132 effectively blocks the proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome complex. MG-132, a peptide aldehyde, also is an autophagy activator. MG-132 also induces apoptosis.
  • HY-10219
    Rapamycin
    Inducer 99.94%
    Rapamycin (Sirolimus; AY 22989) is a potent and specific mTOR inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.1 nM in HEK293 cells. Rapamycin binds to FKBP12 and specifically acts as an allosteric inhibitor of mTORC1. Rapamycin is an autophagy activator, an immunosuppressant.
  • HY-19312
    3-Methyladenine
    Inhibitor 99.83%
    3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a PI3K inhibitor. 3-Methyladenine is a widely used inhibitor of autophagy via its inhibitory effect on class III PI3K.
  • HY-17394
    Cisplatin
    Inducer 99.70%
    Cisplatin (CDDP) is an antineoplastic chemotherapy agent by cross-linking with DNA and causing DNA damage in cancer cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy.
  • HY-17589A
    Chloroquine
    Inhibitor 99.98%
    Chloroquine is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory agent widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine is an autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs) inhibitor. Chloroquine is highly effective in the control of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection in vitro (EC50=1.13 μM).
  • HY-14541
    Olanzapine
    Inducer 99.89%
    Olanzapine (LY170053) is a selective, orally active monoaminergic antagonist with high affinity binding to serotonin H1, 5HT2A/2C, 5HT3, 5HT6 (Ki=7, 4, 11, 57, and 5 nM, respectively), dopamine D1-4 (Ki=11 to 31 nM), muscarinic M1-5 (Ki=1.9-25 nM), and adrenergic α1 receptor (Ki=19 nM). Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic.
  • HY-W016412
    Coenzyme Q0
    Inducer ≥99.0%
    Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) is a potent, oral active ubiquinone compound can be derived from Antrodia cinnamomea. Coenzyme Q0 induces apoptosis and autophagy, suppresses of HER-2/AKT/mTOR signaling to potentiate the apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms. Coenzyme Q0 regulates NFκB/AP-1 activation and enhances Nrf2 stabilization in attenuation of inflammation and redox imbalance. Coenzyme Q0 has anti-angiogenic activity through downregulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and upregulation of HO-1 signaling.
  • HY-108766
    Ponatinib hydrochloride
    Inducer 99.26%
    Ponatinib (AP24534) hydrochloride is a hydrochloride of ponatinib. Ponatinib is an orally active multi-targeted kinase inhibitor with IC50s of 0.37 nM, 1.1 nM, 1.5 nM, 2.2 nM, and 5.4 nM for Abl, PDGFRα, VEGFR2, FGFR1, and Src, respectively.
  • HY-10108
    LY294002
    Inhibitor 99.92%
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitor that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an apoptosis activator.
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride
    Inducer 99.58%
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy.
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1
    Inhibitor 99.43%
    Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with IC50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis.
  • HY-10162
    Olaparib
    Inducer 99.98%
    Olaparib (AZD2281; KU0059436) is a potent and orally active PARP inhibitor with IC50s of 5 and 1 nM for PARP1 and PARP2, respectively. Olaparib is an autophagy and mitophagy activator.
  • HY-B0015
    Paclitaxel
    Inducer 99.97%
    Paclitaxel is a naturally occurring antineoplastic agent and stabilizes tubulin polymerization. Paclitaxel can cause both mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel also induces autophagy.
  • HY-13757A
    Tamoxifen
    Inducer 99.92%
    Tamoxifen (ICI 47699) is an orally active, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which blocks estrogen action in breast cells and can activate estrogen activity in other cells, such as bone, liver, and uterine cells. Tamoxifen is a potent Hsp90 activator and enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen also potent inhibits infectious EBOV Zaire and Marburg (MARV) with IC50 of 0.1 µM and 1.8 µM, respectively. Tamoxifen activates autophagy and induces apoptosis. Tamoxifen also can induce gene knockout of CreER(T2) transgenic mouse.
  • HY-10182
    Laduviglusib
    Inducer 99.76%
    Laduviglusib (CHIR-99021) is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. Laduviglusib shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. Laduviglusib is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. Laduviglusib enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. Laduviglusib induces autophagy.
  • HY-14648
    Dexamethasone
    Inducer 99.86%
    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. Dexamethasone also significantly decreases CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression on neutrophils, and CD11b and CD18 expression on monocytes. Dexamethasone is highly effective in the control of COVID-19 infection. Dexamethasone inhibits production of exosomes containing inflammatory microRNA-155 in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory responses.
  • HY-15531
    Venetoclax
    Inducer 99.78%
    Venetoclax (ABT-199; GDC-0199) is a highly potent, selective and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 inhibitor with a Ki of less than 0.01 nM. Venetoclax induces autophagy.
  • HY-B0988
    Deferoxamine mesylate
    Inducer 99.86%
    Deferoxamine mesylate (Deferoxamine B mesylate) is an iron chelator (binds to Fe(III) and many other metal cations), is widely used to reduce iron accumulation and deposition in tissues. Deferoxamine mesylate upregulates HIF-1α levels with good antioxidant activity. Deferoxamine mesylate also shows anti-proliferative activity, can induce apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. Deferoxamine mesylate can be used in studies of diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases as well as anti-cancer and anti-COVID-19.
  • HY-13418A
    Dorsomorphin
    Inducer 99.91%
    Dorsomorphin (Compound C) is a selective and ATP-competitive AMPK inhibitor (Ki=109 nM in the absence of AMP). Dorsomorphin (BML-275) selectively inhibits BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3, and ALK6. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy.
  • HY-15371
    Forskolin
    Inducer 99.78%
    Forskolin (Coleonol) is a potent adenylate cyclase activator with an IC50 of 41 nM and an EC50 of 0.5 μM for type I adenylyl cyclase. Forskolin is also an inducer of intracellular cAMP formation. Forskolin induces differentiation of various cell types and activates pregnane X receptor (PXR) and FXR. Forskolin exerts a inotropic effect on the heart, and has platelet antiaggregatory and antihypertensive actions. Forskolin also induces autophagy.