1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Autophagy
  3. Autophagy

Autophagy

Autophagy is a conserved cellular degradation and recycling process in the lysosome. In mammalian cells, there are three primary types of autophagy: microautophagy, macroautophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Microphagy captures cargoes by means of invaginations or protrusions of the lysosomal membrane directly, CMA uses chaperones to identify cargo proteins and then unfolds and transfers them into the lysosomal, while macroautophagy sequesters cargo by autophagosomes-de novo synthesized of double-membrane vesicles-and subsequently transport it to the lysosome.

Macroautophagy is the best studied and it occurs at a low level constitutively and can also be further induced under stress conditions, such as nutrient or energy starvation with a salient feature of autophagy protein degradation. Stress-induced macrophagy plays an important role in protein catabolism with another key protein degradation pathway, the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS).

As the study progressed, autophagy gains its importance under basal, nutrient-rich conditions, and is now recognized as a critical housekeeping pathway in catabolism of diverse cellular constituents, such as protein aggregates (aggrephagy), lipid droplets (lipophagy), iron complex (Ferritinophagy) and carbohydrate. Except for macromolecules, autophagy can also target several organelles and structures, such as mitochondria (mitophagy), peroxisome (pexophagy), endoplasmic reticulum (reticulophagy or ER-phagy), ribosome (ribophagy), spermatozoon-inherited organelles following fertilization (allophagy), secretory granules within pancreatic cells (zymophagy) and intracellular pathogens (xenophagy).

Autophagy and its dysfunction are associated with a variety of human pathologies, including ageing, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, heart disease and metabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Plenty of drugs and natural products are involved in autophagy modulation through multiple signaling pathways. Small molecules that can regulate autophagy seem to have great potential to intervene such diseases in animal models or clinical courses.

Autophagy Related Products (1060):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-13259
    MG-132 Activator ≥98.0%
    MG-132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al) is a potent proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 100 nM and 1.2 μM, respectively. MG-132 effectively blocks the proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome complex. MG-132, a peptide aldehyde, also is an autophagy activator. MG-132 also induces apoptosis.
  • HY-10219
    Rapamycin Activator ≥98.0%
    Rapamycin (Sirolimus; AY 22989) is a potent and specific mTOR inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.1 nM in HEK293 cells. Rapamycin binds to FKBP12 and specifically acts as an allosteric inhibitor of mTORC1. Rapamycin is an autophagy activator, an immunosuppressant.
  • HY-19312
    3-Methyladenine Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a PI3K inhibitor. 3-Methyladenine is a widely used inhibitor of autophagy via its inhibitory effect on class III PI3K.
  • HY-17394
    Cisplatin Activator ≥99.0%
    Cisplatin (CDDP) is an antineoplastic chemotherapy agent by cross-linking with DNA and causing DNA damage in cancer cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy.
  • HY-10108
    LY294002 Activator ≥98.0%
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitorr that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an autophagy and apoptosis activator.
  • HY-100001
    SKF-96365 hydrochloride Activator 99.51%
    SKF-96365 hydrochloride is a potent TRP channel blocker and a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) inhibitor. SKF-96365 hydrochloride significantly inhibits hERG, hKCNQ1/hKCNE1, hKir2.1 and hKv4.3 current, and significantly prolongs the QTc interval in isolated guinea pig hearts. SKF-96365 hydrochloride exhibits potent anti-neoplastic activity by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.
  • HY-101923A
    LYN-1604 hydrochloride Activator
    LYN-1604 hydrochloride is a potent UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) activator (EC50=18.94 nM) for the research of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).
  • HY-137742
    SBP-7455 Inhibitor
    SBP-7455 is a potent, high affinity and orally active dual ULK1/ULK2 autophagy inhibitor with IC50s of 13 nM and 476 nM in the ADP-Glo assays, respectively. SBP-7455 potently inhibits ULK1/2 enzymatic activity and can be used for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) research.
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride Activator ≥99.0%
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy.
  • HY-10162
    Olaparib Activator 99.98%
    Olaparib (AZD2281; KU0059436) is a potent and orally active PARP inhibitor with IC50s of 5 and 1 nM for PARP1 and PARP2, respectively. Olaparib is an autophagy and mitophagy activator.
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1 Inhibitor ≥99.0%
    Bafilomycin A1 is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with I50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis.
  • HY-B0015
    Paclitaxel Activator 99.97%
    Paclitaxel is a naturally occurring antineoplastic agent and stabilizes tubulin polymerization. Paclitaxel can cause both mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel also induces autophagy.
  • HY-15531
    Venetoclax Activator ≥98.0%
    Venetoclax (ABT-199; GDC-0199) is a highly potent, selective and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 inhibitor with a Ki of less than 0.01 nM. Venetoclax induces autophagy.
  • HY-10256
    SB 203580 Activator 99.92%
    SB 203580 (RWJ 64809) is a selective and ATP-competitive p38 MAPK inhibitor with IC50s of 50 nM and 500 nM for SAPK2a/p38 and SAPK2b/p38β2, respectively. SB 203580 inhibits LCK, GSK3β and PKBα with IC50s of 100-500-fold higher than that for SAPK2a/p38. SB 203580 does not disrupt JNK activity and is an autophagy and mitophagy activator.
  • HY-10182
    CHIR-99021 Activator ≥98.0%
    CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. CHIR-99021 shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. CHIR-99021 is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. CHIR-99021 enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. CHIR-99021 induces autophagy.
  • HY-11109
    Resatorvid Inhibitor 99.95%
    Resatorvid (TAK-242) is a selective Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor. Resatorvid inhibits NO, TNF-α and IL-6 production with IC50s of 1.8 nM, 1.9 nM and 1.3 nM, respectively. Resatorvid downregulates expression of TLR4 downstream signaling molecules MyD88 and TRIF. Resatorvid inhibits autophagy and plays pivotal role in various inflammatory diseases.
  • HY-12041
    SP600125 Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    SP600125 is an orally active, reversible, and ATP-competitive JNK inhibitor with IC50s of 40, 40 and 90 nM for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3, respectively. SP600125 is a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. SP600125 inhibits autophagy and activates apoptosis.
  • HY-10201
    Sorafenib Activator 99.92%
    Sorafenib (Bay 43-9006) is a potent and orally active Raf inhibitor with IC50s of 6 nM and 20 nM for Raf-1 and B-Raf, respectively. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with IC50s of 90 nM, 15 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM and 58 nM for VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ, FLT3 and c-Kit, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis. Sorafenib has anti-tumor activity. Sorafenib is a ferroptosis activator.
  • HY-B0988
    Deferoxamine mesylate Activator ≥99.0%
    Deferoxamine mesylate is an iron chelator that binds free iron in a stable complex, preventing it from engaging in chemical reactions.
  • HY-13030
    (+)-JQ-1 Activator 99.90%
    (+)-JQ-1 (JQ1) is a potent, specific, and reversible BET bromodomain inhibitor, with IC50s of 77 and 33 nM for the first and second bromodomain (BRD4(1/2)). (+)-JQ-1 also activates autophagy.
Isoform Specific Products

Your Search Returned No Results.

Sorry. There is currently no product that acts on isoform together.

Please try each isoform separately.