1. Autophagy
  2. Autophagy

Autophagy

Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradative process that protects cancer cells from multiple stresses.

Autophagy, the sequestration of organelles and proteins in autophagic vesicles (AVs) and degradation of this cargo through lysosomal fusion, allows tumor cells to survive metabolic and therapeutic stresses. Therapy-induced autophagy is a key resistance mechanism to many anticancer agents, and autophagy levels are increased in most cancers. Chloroquine derivatives block autophagy by impairing lysosomal function.

Autophagy plays an emerging role in immune responses against intracellular pathogens and regulates distinct immunologic processes, important for the initiation of potent innate or adaptive immune responses.

Autophagy is important for the transport of cytoplasmic constituents such as damaged mitochondria and protein aggregates to lysosomes where they are degraded and recycled back into the cytoplasm.

Autophagy Related Products (565):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-12320
    Cycloheximide Inhibitor 99.45%
    Cycloheximide (Naramycin A) is an eukaryote protein synthesis inhibitor, with IC50s of 532.5 nM and 2880 nM for protein synthesis and RNA synthesis in vivo, respectively.
  • HY-19312
    3-Methyladenine Inhibitor 99.84%
    3-Methyladenine is a PI3K inhibitor. 3-Methyladenine is a widely used inhibitor of autophagy via its inhibitory effect on class III PI3K.
  • HY-10108
    LY294002 Inhibitor 99.95%
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively. It also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM.
  • HY-11109
    TAK-242 Inhibitor 99.95%
    TAK-242 (Resatorvid) is a potent TLR4 signaling inhibitor which selectively inhibits the TLR4-mediated production of cytokines and nitric oxide.
  • HY-10256
    SB 203580 Activator 99.54%
    SB 203580 is a widely used p38 MAPK inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.3-0.5 μM. It shows more than 100-fold selectivity over PKB, LCK, and GSK-3β.
  • HY-17559
    Actinomycin D Activator 99.89%
    Actinomycin D inhibits DNA repair with an IC50 of 0.42 μM.
  • HY-13316
    Mitomycin C Activator 98.89%
    Mitomycin C is an antitumor drug and antibiotic that shows extraordinary ability to inhibit DNA synthesis.
  • HY-12041
    SP600125 Inhibitor 98.82%
    SP600125 is a reversible and ATP-competitive JNK inhibitor with IC50s of 40, 40 and 90 nM for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3, respectively.
  • HY-13030
    (+)-JQ-1 Activator 99.90%
    (+)-JQ-1 is a BET bromodomain inhibitor, with IC50s of 77 and 33 nM for the first and second bromodomain (BRD4(1/2)).
  • HY-10162
    Olaparib Activator 99.71%
    Olaparib (AZD2281;KU0059436) is a potent and oral PARP inhibitor with IC50s of 5 and 1 nM for PARP1 and PARP2, respectively.
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride Activator 99.47%
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of multiple cancers. The possible mechanisms by which doxorubicin acts in the cancer cell are intercalation into DNA and disruption of topoisomerase-II-mediated DNA repair.
  • HY-12031
    U0126 Inhibitor 98.06%
    U0126 is a potent and non-ATP competitive MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor, with IC50s of 70 nM and 60 nM, respectively.
  • HY-70002
    Enzalutamide Activator 99.71%
    Enzalutamide (MDV3100) is an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with an IC50 of 36 nM in LNCaP prostate cells.
  • HY-17589
    Chloroquine diphosphate Inhibitor 99.94%
    Chloroquine (diphosphate) is an antimalarial and anti-inflammatory drug widely used to treat malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. Chloroquine is an inhibitor of autophagy and toll-like receptors (TLRs).
  • HY-10182
    CHIR-99021 Activator 99.92%
    CHIR-99021 is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with an IC50 of 10 and 6.7 nM,showing 500-fold selectivity over its closest homologs CDC2 and ERK2, as well as other protein kinases.
  • HY-13418
    Dorsomorphin dihydrochloride Inhibitor 99.73%
    Dorsomorphin dihydrochloride (BML-275 dihydrochloride) is a potent, selective and ATP-competitive AMPK inhibitor, with a Ki of 109±16 nM.
  • HY-17471A
    Metformin hydrochloride Activator 99.98%
    Metformin (hydrochloride) is an FDA approved first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production, mostly through a mild and transient inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory-chain complex 1.
  • HY-10358
    MK 2206 dihydrochloride Activator 99.47%
    MK 2206 is an orally active allosteric Akt inhibitor with IC50s of 5, 12 and 65 nM for Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3, respectively.
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib Modulator 99.97%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor with a Ki of 0.6 nM.
  • HY-12028
    PD98059 Inhibitor 99.45%
    PD98059 is a potent, selective and cell-permeable MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor with IC50s of 4 μM and 50 μM respectively.
Isoform Specific Products

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