1. Signaling Pathways
  2. PI3K/Akt/mTOR
    Stem Cell/Wnt
  3. GSK-3

GSK-3

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase found in all eukaryotes. GSK-3 is one of the few signaling mediators that play central roles in a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnts, hedgehog, growth factors, cytokines, and G protein-coupled ligands. GSK-3 targets transcription factors, regulates the activity of metabolic and signaling enzymes, and controls the half-life of proteins by earmarking them for degradation. GSK-3 exists as two isoforms, GSK-3a (51 kDa) and GSK3b (47 kDa), which are encoded by distinct genes. These isoforms often have overlapping functions, but they do not always compensate for each other.

GSK-3 Isoform Specific Products:

  • GSK-3

  • GSK-3α

  • GSK-3β

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-10182
    CHIR-99021 Inhibitor 99.76%
    CHIR-99021 is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with an IC50 of 10 and 6.7 nM, showing 500-fold selectivity over its closest homologs CDC2 and ERK2, as well as other protein kinases.
  • HY-12012
    SB 216763 Inhibitor 98.01%
    SB 216763 is potent, selective and ATP-competitive GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50s of 34.3 nM for both GSK-3α and GSK-3β.
  • HY-10590
    TWS119 Inhibitor >98.0%
    TWS119 is a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 30 nM, and activates the wnt/β-catenin pathway.
  • HY-16294
    LY2090314 Inhibitor 99.75%
    LY2090314 is a potent inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) with IC50 values of 1.5 nM and 0.9 nM for GSK-3α and GSK-3β, respectively.
  • HY-12302
    Kenpaullone Inhibitor 98.07%
    Kenpaullone is a potent inhibitor of CDK1/cyclin B and GSK-3β, with IC50s of 0.4 μM and 23 nM, and also inhibits CDK2/cyclin A, CDK2/cyclin E, and CDK5/p25 with IC50s of 0.68 μM, 7.5 μM, 0.85 μM, respectively.
  • HY-59090
    1-Azakenpaullone Inhibitor 98.20%
    1-Azakenpaullone (1-Akp) is a highly selective and ATP-competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3β), with an IC50 value of 18 nM.
  • HY-108359
    Alsterpaullone Inhibitor
    Alsterpaullone (9-Nitropaullone;NSC 705701) is a potent CDK inhibitor, with IC50s of 35 nM, 15 nM, 200 nM and 40 nM for CDK1/cyclin B, CDK2/cyclin A, CDK2/cyclin E and CDK5/p35, respectively. Alsterpaullone also competes with ATP for binding to GSK-3alpha/GSK-3beta with IC50s of both 4 nM. Alsterpaullone has antitumor activity, and possesses potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative and proliferative disorders.
  • HY-107531
    A 1070722 Inhibitor >99.0%
    A 1070722 is a potent and selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, with a Ki of 0.6 nM for both GSK-3α and GSK-3β. A 1070722 can penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and accumulates in brain regions, thus potential for PET radiotracer for the quantification of GSK-3 in brain.
  • HY-14872
    Tideglusib Inhibitor 99.81%
    Tideglusib (NP031112) is an irreversible GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50s of 5 nM and 60 nM for GSK-3βWT (1 h preincubation) and GSK-3βC199A (1 h preincubation), respectively.
  • HY-10512
    AR-A014418 Inhibitor
    AR-A014418 is a potent, selective and ATP-competitive GSK3β inhibitor with an IC50 of 104 nM。
  • HY-10580
    GSK 3 Inhibitor IX Inhibitor 99.66%
    GSK 3 Inhibitor IX (6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime; BIO) is a potent, selective, reversible and ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK-3α/β and CDK1-cyclinB complex with IC50s of 5 nM/320 nM/80 nM for (GSK-3α/β)/CDK1/CDK5, respectively.
  • HY-10182B
    CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride Inhibitor
    CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM/6.7 nM; > 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs CDC2 and ERK2, as well as other protein kinases.
  • HY-19807
    Indirubin-3'-monoxime Inhibitor 99.95%
    Indirubin-3'-monoxime is a potent GSK-3β inhibitor, and weakly inhibits 5-Lipoxygenase, with IC50s of 22 nM and 7.8-10 µM, respectively; Indirubin-3'-monoxime also shows inhibitory activities against CDK5/p25 and CDK1/cyclin B, with IC50s of 100 and 180 nM.
  • HY-12524
    Bikinin Inhibitor 99.82%
    Bikinin is a non-steroidal, ATP-competitive inhibitor of plant GSK-3/Shaggy-like kinases and activates BR (brassinosteroids) signaling.
  • HY-B0320A
    Cromolyn sodium Inhibitor 99.97%
    Cromolyn sodium is an antiallergic drug. Cromolyn sodium is a GSK-3β inhibitor with an IC50 of 2.0 µM.
  • HY-15504A
    RGB-286638 free base Inhibitor 98.07%
    RGB-286638 is a CDK inhibitor that inhibits the kinase activity of cyclin T1-CDK9, cyclin B1-CDK1, cyclin E-CDK2, cyclin D1-CDK4, cyclin E-CDK3, and p35-CDK5 with IC50s of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 5 nM, respectively; also inhibits GSK-3β, TAK1, Jak2 and MEK1, with IC50s of 3, 5, 50, and 54 nM.
  • HY-11012
    TDZD-8 Inhibitor 98.74%
    TDZD-8 is an inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 2 μM; TDZD-8 shows less potent activities against Cdk-1/cyclin B, CK-II, PKA, and PKC, with all IC50s of >100 μM.
  • HY-13862
    AZD1080 Inhibitor 99.10%
    AZD1080 is a potent and selective GSK3 inhibitor. AZD1080 inhibits recombinant human GSK3α and GSK3β with pKi (IC50) of 8.2 (6.9 nM) and 7.5 (31 nM), respectively.
  • HY-15438
    SB 415286 Inhibitor 99.88%
    SB 415286 is a potent and selective cell permeable inhibitor of GSK-3α, with an IC50 of 77.5 nM, and a Ki of 30.75 nM; SB 415286 is equally effective at inhibiting human GSK-3α and GSK-3β.
  • HY-10182A
    CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride Inhibitor 99.93%
    CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM/6.7 nM; > 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs CDC2 and ERK2, as well as other protein kinases.

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase found in all eukaryotes. GSK-3 is one of the few signaling mediators that play central roles in a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnt, PI3K, growth factors, cytokines, and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. The PI3K pathway is known for regulating metabolism, cell growth, and cell survival. The PI3K activity is stimulated by diverse oncogenes and growth factor receptors. PI3K-mediated production of PIP3 leads to the activation of Akt. The activation of Akt leads to the phosphorylation of GSK-3, which is active in resting cells, but is inactivated by the phosphorylation. The GSK-3 has been linked to the regulation of an assembly of transcription factors, including β-catenin, NF-κB, c-Jun, CREB, and STAT. Thus, the altered activity of GSK-3 causes various effects on cytokine expression. 

 

In the absence of Wnt signaling, β-catenin is phosphorylated by CK1 and GSK-3. This phosphorylation leads to recognition by β-TrCP, leading to the ubiquitylation of β-catenin and degradation by the proteasome. Upon binding of a lipid-modified Wnt protein to the receptor complex, a signaling cascade is initiated. LRP is phosphorylated by CK1/CK2 and GSK-3, and Axin is recruited to the plasma membrane. The kinases in the β-catenin destruction complex are inactivated and β-catenin translocates to the nucleus to form an active transcription factor complex with TCF, leading to transcription of a large set of target genes.

 

Some endogenous growth factors could bind to and activate the tyrosine kinase receptor. This facilitates the recruitment of other proteins (SHC, SOS), which results in the activation of the ERK-MAPK cascade and the inhibition of GSK-3. GSK-3 exerts many cellular effects: it regulates cytoskeletal proteins, and is important in determining cell survival/cell death. GSK-3 has also been identified as a target for the actions of lithium. GSK-3 can inhibit glycogen synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDPG to glycogen[1][2].

 

Reference:

[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 

Targets/MCE-GSK-3-Signaling-Pathway.png

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase found in all eukaryotes. GSK-3 is one of the few signaling mediators that play central roles in a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnt, PI3K, growth factors, cytokines, and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. The PI3K pathway is known for regulating metabolism, cell growth, and cell survival. The PI3K activity is stimulated by diverse oncogenes and growth factor receptors. PI3K-mediated production of PIP3 leads to the activation of Akt. The activation of Akt leads to the phosphorylation of GSK-3, which is active in resting cells, but is inactivated by the phosphorylation. The GSK-3 has been linked to the regulation of an assembly of transcription factors, including β-catenin, NF-κB, c-Jun, CREB, and STAT. Thus, the altered activity of GSK-3 causes various effects on cytokine expression. 

 

In the absence of Wnt signaling, β-catenin is phosphorylated by CK1 and GSK-3. This phosphorylation leads to recognition by β-TrCP, leading to the ubiquitylation of β-catenin and degradation by the proteasome. Upon binding of a lipid-modified Wnt protein to the receptor complex, a signaling cascade is initiated. LRP is phosphorylated by CK1/CK2 and GSK-3, and Axin is recruited to the plasma membrane. The kinases in the β-catenin destruction complex are inactivated and β-catenin translocates to the nucleus to form an active transcription factor complex with TCF, leading to transcription of a large set of target genes.

 

Some endogenous growth factors could bind to and activate the tyrosine kinase receptor. This facilitates the recruitment of other proteins (SHC, SOS), which results in the activation of the ERK-MAPK cascade and the inhibition of GSK-3. GSK-3 exerts many cellular effects: it regulates cytoskeletal proteins, and is important in determining cell survival/cell death. GSK-3 has also been identified as a target for the actions of lithium. GSK-3 can inhibit glycogen synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDPG to glycogen[1][2].

 

Reference:

[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 

Isoform Specific Products

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