1. Signaling Pathways
  2. PI3K/Akt/mTOR
    Stem Cell/Wnt
  3. GSK-3

GSK-3

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase consisting of two isoforms, alpha and beta. GSK-3 is a key regulator of numerous signalling pathways, including cellular responses to Wnt, receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell cycle regulation and proliferation. GSK-3 is unusual in that it is normally active in cells and is primarily regulated through inhibition of its activity.

GSK-3 Isoform Specific Products:

  • GSK-3

  • GSK-3α

  • GSK-3β

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-10182
    CHIR-99021
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. CHIR-99021 shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. CHIR-99021 is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. CHIR-99021 enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. CHIR-99021 induces autophagy.
  • HY-12012
    SB 216763
    Inhibitor 99.30%
    SB 216763 is potent, selective and ATP-competitive GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50s of 34.3 nM for both GSK-3α and GSK-3β.
  • HY-16294
    LY2090314
    Inhibitor 99.01%
    LY2090314 is a potent inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) with IC50 values of 1.5 nM and 0.9 nM for GSK-3α and GSK-3β, respectively.
  • HY-14872
    Tideglusib
    Inhibitor 99.66%
    Tideglusib (NP031112) is an irreversible GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50s of 5 nM and 60 nM for GSK-3βWT (1 h preincubation) and GSK-3βC199A (1 h preincubation), respectively.
  • HY-10512
    AR-A014418
    Inhibitor 99.49%
    AR-A014418 is a potent, selective and ATP-competitive GSK3β inhibitor (IC50=104 nM; Ki=38 nM).
  • HY-117025A
    Manzamine A hydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.29%
    Manzamine A hydrochloride, an orally active beta-carboline alkaloid, inhibits specifically GSK-3β and CDK-5 with IC50s of 10.2 and 1.5μM, respectively. Manzamine A hydrochloride targets vacuolar ATPases and inhibits autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Manzamine A hydrochloride has antimalarial and anticancer activities. Manzamine A hydrochloride also shows potent activity against HSV-1.
  • HY-111379
    EHT 5372
    Inhibitor
    EHT 5372 is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of DYRK’s family kinases with IC50s of 0.22, 0.28, 10.8, 93.2, 22.8, 88.8, 59.0, 7.44, 221 nM for DYRK1A, DYRK1B , DYRK2, DYRK3, CLK1, CLK2, CLK4, GSK-3α, GSK-3β.
  • HY-139324
    Cu(II)GTSM
    Inhibitor
    Cu(II)GTSM, a cell-permeable Cu-complex, significantly inhibits GSK3β. Cu(II)GTSM inhibits Amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) and decreases tau phosphorylation. Cu(II)GTSM also decreases the abundance of Amyloid-β trimers. Cu(II)GTSM is a potential anticancer and antimicrobial agent.
  • HY-10182A
    CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.93%
    CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride (CT99021 monohydrochloride) is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. CHIR-99021 monohydrochloride induces autophagy.
  • HY-11012
    TDZD-8
    Inhibitor 99.76%
    TDZD-8 is an inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 2 μM; TDZD-8 shows less potent activities against Cdk-1/cyclin B, CK-II, PKA, and PKC, with all IC50s of >100 μM.
  • HY-10590
    TWS119
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    TWS119 is a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 30 nM, and activates the wnt/β-catenin pathway.
  • HY-10580
    GSK 3 Inhibitor IX
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    GSK 3 Inhibitor IX (6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime; BIO) is a potent, selective, reversible and ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK-3α/β and CDK1-cyclinB complex with IC50s of 5 nM/320 nM/80 nM for (GSK-3α/β)/CDK1/CDK5, respectively.
  • HY-12302
    Kenpaullone
    Inhibitor 98.01%
    Kenpaullone is a potent inhibitor of CDK1/cyclin B and GSK-3β, with IC50s of 0.4 μM and 23 nM, and also inhibits CDK2/cyclin A, CDK2/cyclin E, and CDK5/p25 with IC50s of 0.68 μM, 7.5 μM, 0.85 μM, respectively. Kenpaullone, a small molecule inhibitor of KLF4, reduces self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells and cell motility in vitro.
  • HY-10182B
    CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride
    Inhibitor 98.01%
    CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride (CT99021 trihydrochloride) is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. CHIR-99021 trihydrochloride induces autophagy.
  • HY-B0320A
    Cromolyn sodium
    Inhibitor 99.10%
    Cromolyn sodium (Disodium Cromoglycate; FPL-670) is an antiallergic drug. Cromolyn sodium is a GSK-3β inhibitor with an IC50 of 2.0 µM.
  • HY-13862
    AZD1080
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    AZD1080 is a potent and selective GSK3 inhibitor. AZD1080 inhibits recombinant human GSK3α and GSK3β with pKi (IC50) of 8.2 (6.9 nM) and 7.5 (31 nM), respectively.
  • HY-13076
    CHIR-98014
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    CHIR-98014 is a potent, cell-permeable GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50s of 0.65 and 0.58 nM for GSK-3α and GSK-3β, respectively; it shows less potent activities against cdc2 and erk2.
  • HY-113914
    9-ING-41
    Inhibitor 99.32%
    9-ING-41 is a maleimide-based ATP-competitive and selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.71 μM. 9-ING-41 significantly leads to cell cycle arrest, autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. 9-ING-41 has anticancer activity and has the potential for enhancing the antitumor effects of chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • HY-10014
    R547
    Inhibitor 99.66%
    R547 is a potent, selective and oral orally bioavailable ATP-competitive CDK inhibitor, with Kis of 2 nM, 3 nM and 1 nM for CDK1/cyclin B, CDK2/cyclin E and CDK4/cyclin D1, respectively.
  • HY-116830
    BRD0705
    Inhibitor 98.41%
    BRD0705 is a potent, paralog selective and orally active GSK3α inhibitor with an IC50 of 66 nM and a Kd of 4.8 μM. BRD0705 displays increased selectivity for GSK3α (8-fold) versus GSK3β (IC50 of 515 nM). BRD0705 can be used for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) research.

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase found in all eukaryotes. GSK-3 is one of the few signaling mediators that play central roles in a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnt, PI3K, growth factors, cytokines, and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. The PI3K pathway is known for regulating metabolism, cell growth, and cell survival. The PI3K activity is stimulated by diverse oncogenes and growth factor receptors. PI3K-mediated production of PIP3 leads to the activation of Akt. The activation of Akt leads to the phosphorylation of GSK-3, which is active in resting cells, but is inactivated by the phosphorylation. The GSK-3 has been linked to the regulation of an assembly of transcription factors, including β-catenin, NF-κB, c-Jun, CREB, and STAT. Thus, the altered activity of GSK-3 causes various effects on cytokine expression. 

 

In the absence of Wnt signaling, β-catenin is phosphorylated by CK1 and GSK-3. This phosphorylation leads to recognition by β-TrCP, leading to the ubiquitylation of β-catenin and degradation by the proteasome. Upon binding of a lipid-modified Wnt protein to the receptor complex, a signaling cascade is initiated. LRP is phosphorylated by CK1/CK2 and GSK-3, and Axin is recruited to the plasma membrane. The kinases in the β-catenin destruction complex are inactivated and β-catenin translocates to the nucleus to form an active transcription factor complex with TCF, leading to transcription of a large set of target genes.

 

Some endogenous growth factors could bind to and activate the tyrosine kinase receptor. This facilitates the recruitment of other proteins (SHC, SOS), which results in the activation of the ERK-MAPK cascade and the inhibition of GSK-3. GSK-3 exerts many cellular effects: it regulates cytoskeletal proteins, and is important in determining cell survival/cell death. GSK-3 has also been identified as a target for the actions of lithium. GSK-3 can inhibit glycogen synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDPG to glycogen[1][2].

 

Reference:

[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 

Targets/MCE-GSK-3-Signaling-Pathway.png

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase found in all eukaryotes. GSK-3 is one of the few signaling mediators that play central roles in a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnt, PI3K, growth factors, cytokines, and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. The PI3K pathway is known for regulating metabolism, cell growth, and cell survival. The PI3K activity is stimulated by diverse oncogenes and growth factor receptors. PI3K-mediated production of PIP3 leads to the activation of Akt. The activation of Akt leads to the phosphorylation of GSK-3, which is active in resting cells, but is inactivated by the phosphorylation. The GSK-3 has been linked to the regulation of an assembly of transcription factors, including β-catenin, NF-κB, c-Jun, CREB, and STAT. Thus, the altered activity of GSK-3 causes various effects on cytokine expression. 

 

In the absence of Wnt signaling, β-catenin is phosphorylated by CK1 and GSK-3. This phosphorylation leads to recognition by β-TrCP, leading to the ubiquitylation of β-catenin and degradation by the proteasome. Upon binding of a lipid-modified Wnt protein to the receptor complex, a signaling cascade is initiated. LRP is phosphorylated by CK1/CK2 and GSK-3, and Axin is recruited to the plasma membrane. The kinases in the β-catenin destruction complex are inactivated and β-catenin translocates to the nucleus to form an active transcription factor complex with TCF, leading to transcription of a large set of target genes.

 

Some endogenous growth factors could bind to and activate the tyrosine kinase receptor. This facilitates the recruitment of other proteins (SHC, SOS), which results in the activation of the ERK-MAPK cascade and the inhibition of GSK-3. GSK-3 exerts many cellular effects: it regulates cytoskeletal proteins, and is important in determining cell survival/cell death. GSK-3 has also been identified as a target for the actions of lithium. GSK-3 can inhibit glycogen synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDPG to glycogen[1][2].

 

Reference:

[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 

Isoform Specific Products

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