1. Signaling Pathways
  2. PI3K/Akt/mTOR
    Stem Cell/Wnt
  3. GSK-3

GSK-3

Glycogen synthase kinase-3; Glycogen synthase kinase 3

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase consisting of two isoforms, alpha and beta. It is a highly conserved negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase, cytokine, and Wnt signaling pathways. Stimulation of these pathways inhibits GSK-3 to modulate diverse downstream effectors that include transcription factors, nutrient sensors, glycogen synthesis, mitochondrial function, circadian rhythm, and cell fate. GSK-3 also regulates alternative splicing in response to T-cell receptor activation, and recent phosphoproteomic studies have revealed that multiple splicing factors and regulators of RNA biosynthesis are phosphorylated in a GSK-3-dependent manner.

The malfunction or aberrant activity of GSK-3 leads to several of disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative pathologies, and other type of diseases as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. GSK-3 is also related to innate immune response against pathogens, which makes GSK-3 an excellent target for therapeutic intervention.

GSK-3 Isoform Specific Products:

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-10182
    Laduviglusib
    Inhibitor 99.76%
    Laduviglusib (CHIR-99021) is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. Laduviglusib shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. Laduviglusib is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. Laduviglusib enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. Laduviglusib induces autophagy.
  • HY-12012
    SB 216763
    Inhibitor 99.30%
    SB 216763 is potent, selective and ATP-competitive GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50s of 34.3 nM for both GSK-3α and GSK-3β.
  • HY-16294
    LY2090314
    Inhibitor 99.72%
    LY2090314 is a potent inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) with IC50 values of 1.5 nM and 0.9 nM for GSK-3α and GSK-3β, respectively.
  • HY-10182A
    Laduviglusib monohydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.93%
    Laduviglusib (CHIR-99021) monohydrochloride is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. Laduviglusib monohydrochloride shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. Laduviglusib monohydrochloride is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. Laduviglusib monohydrochloride enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. Laduviglusib monohydrochloride induces autophagy.
  • HY-12302
    Kenpaullone
    Inhibitor 98.01%
    Kenpaullone is a potent inhibitor of CDK1/cyclin B and GSK-3β, with IC50s of 0.4 μM and 23 nM, and also inhibits CDK2/cyclin A, CDK2/cyclin E, and CDK5/p25 with IC50s of 0.68 μM, 7.5 μM, 0.85 μM, respectively. Kenpaullone, a small molecule inhibitor of KLF4, reduces self-renewal of breast cancer stem cells and cell motility in vitro.
  • HY-122665
    HTH-01-091
    Inhibitor
    HTH-01-091 is a potent and selective maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) inhibitor, with an IC50 of 10.5 nM. HTH-01-091 also inhibits PIM1/2/3, RIPK2, DYRK3, smMLCK and CLK2. HTH-01-091 can be uesd for breast cancer research.
  • HY-112809
    GSK2646264
    Inhibitor 98.39%
    GSK2646264 (Compound 44) is a potent and selective spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor with a pIC50 of 7.1. GSK2646264 also inhibits other kinases with pIC50 values of 5.4, 5.4, 5.3, 5, 4.5, <4.6 and <4.3 against LCK, LRRK2, GSK3β, JAK2, VEGFR2, Aurora B and Aurora A, respectively. GSK2646264 is penetrable into the epidermis and dermis of the skin.
  • HY-10182G
    Laduviglusib (GMP)
    Inhibitor
    Laduviglusib (CHIR-99021) (GMP) is Laduviglusib (HY-10182) produced by using GMP guidelines. GMP small molecules works appropriately as an auxiliary reagent for cell therapy manufacture. Laduviglusib is a potent, orally active and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor.
  • HY-10182B
    Laduviglusib trihydrochloride
    Inhibitor 98.68%
    Laduviglusib (CHIR-99021) trihydrochloride is a potent and selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50s of 10 nM and 6.7 nM. Laduviglusib trihydrochloride shows >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over CDC2, ERK2 and other protein kinases. Laduviglusib trihydrochloride is also a potent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activator. Laduviglusib trihydrochloride enhances mouse and human embryonic stem cells self-renewal. Laduviglusib trihydrochloride induces autophagy.
  • HY-10580
    GSK 3 Inhibitor IX
    Inhibitor 99.74%
    GSK 3 Inhibitor IX (6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime; BIO) is a potent, selective, reversible and ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK-3α/β and CDK1-cyclinB complex with IC50s of 5 nM/320 nM/80 nM for (GSK-3α/β)/CDK1/CDK5, respectively.
  • HY-10512
    AR-A014418
    Inhibitor 99.49%
    AR-A014418 is a potent, selective and ATP-competitive GSK3β inhibitor (IC50=104 nM; Ki=38 nM).
  • HY-14872
    Tideglusib
    Inhibitor 99.66%
    Tideglusib (NP031112) is an irreversible GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50s of 5 nM and 60 nM for GSK-3βWT (1 h preincubation) and GSK-3βC199A (1 h preincubation), respectively.
  • HY-10590
    TWS119
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    TWS119 is a specific inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 30 nM, and activates the wnt/β-catenin pathway.
  • HY-13862
    AZD1080
    Inhibitor 99.46%
    AZD1080 is a potent and selective GSK3 inhibitor. AZD1080 inhibits recombinant human GSK3α and GSK3β with pKi (IC50) of 8.2 (6.9 nM) and 7.5 (31 nM), respectively.
  • HY-B0320A
    Cromolyn sodium
    Inhibitor 99.10%
    Cromolyn sodium (Disodium Cromoglycate; FPL-670) is an antiallergic drug. Cromolyn sodium is a GSK-3β inhibitor with an IC50 of 2.0 µM.
  • HY-11012
    TDZD-8
    Inhibitor 99.81%
    TDZD-8 is an inhibitor of GSK-3β, with an IC50 of 2 μM; TDZD-8 shows less potent activities against Cdk-1/cyclin B, CK-II, PKA, and PKC, with all IC50s of >100 μM.
  • HY-15761
    AZD2858
    Inhibitor 99.42%
    AZD2858 is a potent, orally active GSK-3 inhibitor, with IC50s of 0.9 and 5 nM for GSK-3α and GSK-3β, respectively, used in the research of fracture healing.
  • HY-59090
    1-Azakenpaullone
    Inhibitor 98.20%
    1-Azakenpaullone (1-Akp) is a highly selective and ATP-competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3β), with an IC50 value of 18 nM.
  • HY-10014
    R547
    Inhibitor 99.57%
    R547 is a potent, selective and orally active ATP-competitive CDK inhibitor, with Kis of 2 nM, 3 nM and 1 nM for CDK1/cyclin B, CDK2/cyclin E and CDK4/cyclin D1, respectively.
  • HY-113914
    9-ING-41
    Inhibitor 99.32%
    9-ING-41 is a maleimide-based ATP-competitive and selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.71 μM. 9-ING-41 significantly leads to cell cycle arrest, autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. 9-ING-41 has anticancer activity and has the potential for enhancing the antitumor effects of chemotherapeutic drugs.
Cat. No. Product Name / Synonyms Species Source

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase found in all eukaryotes. GSK-3 is one of the few signaling mediators that play central roles in a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnt, PI3K, growth factors, cytokines, and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. The PI3K pathway is known for regulating metabolism, cell growth, and cell survival. The PI3K activity is stimulated by diverse oncogenes and growth factor receptors. PI3K-mediated production of PIP3 leads to the activation of Akt. The activation of Akt leads to the phosphorylation of GSK-3, which is active in resting cells, but is inactivated by the phosphorylation. The GSK-3 has been linked to the regulation of an assembly of transcription factors, including β-catenin, NF-κB, c-Jun, CREB, and STAT. Thus, the altered activity of GSK-3 causes various effects on cytokine expression. 

 

In the absence of Wnt signaling, β-catenin is phosphorylated by CK1 and GSK-3. This phosphorylation leads to recognition by β-TrCP, leading to the ubiquitylation of β-catenin and degradation by the proteasome. Upon binding of a lipid-modified Wnt protein to the receptor complex, a signaling cascade is initiated. LRP is phosphorylated by CK1/CK2 and GSK-3, and Axin is recruited to the plasma membrane. The kinases in the β-catenin destruction complex are inactivated and β-catenin translocates to the nucleus to form an active transcription factor complex with TCF, leading to transcription of a large set of target genes.

 

Some endogenous growth factors could bind to and activate the tyrosine kinase receptor. This facilitates the recruitment of other proteins (SHC, SOS), which results in the activation of the ERK-MAPK cascade and the inhibition of GSK-3. GSK-3 exerts many cellular effects: it regulates cytoskeletal proteins, and is important in determining cell survival/cell death. GSK-3 has also been identified as a target for the actions of lithium. GSK-3 can inhibit glycogen synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of glucose from UDPG to glycogen[1][2].

 

Reference:

[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 

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