1. Signaling Pathways
  2. NF-κB
  3. NF-κB

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-κB; Nuclear factor-kappaB

NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex that controls transcription of DNA. NF-κB is found in almost all animal cell types and is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial or viral antigens. NF-κB plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. Incorrect regulation of NF-κB has been linked to cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases, septic shock, viral infection, and improper immune development. NF-κB has also been implicated in processes of synaptic plasticity and memory. There are five proteins in the mammalian NF-κB family: NF-κB1, NF-κB2, RelA, RelB, c-Rel.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-18739
    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
    Activator 99.66%
    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester, is a dual SphK and protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is a NF-κB activator. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces differentiation in THP-1 cells.
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib
    Inhibitor 99.97%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is a reversible and selective proteasome inhibitor, and potently inhibits 20S proteasome (Ki=0.6 nM) by targeting a threonine residue. Bortezomib disrupts the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits NF-κB. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor anticancer agent. Anti-cancer activity.
  • HY-13453
    BAY 11-7082
    Inhibitor 99.98%
    BAY 11-7082 is an IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB inhibitor. BAY 11-7082 selectively and irreversibly inhibits the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of IκB-α, and decreases NF-κB and expression of adhesion molecules. BAY 11-7082 inhibits ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 and USP21 (IC50=0.19, 0.96 μM, respectively). BAY 11-7082 inhibits gasdermin D (GSDMD) pore formation in liposomes and inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis and IL-1β secretion in human and mouse cells.
  • HY-100487
    TAK-243
    Inhibitor 98.38%
    TAK-243 (MLN7243) is a first-in-class, selective ubiquitin activating enzyme, UAE (UBA1) inhibitor (IC50=1 nM), which blocks ubiquitin conjugation, disrupting monoubiquitin signaling as well as global protein ubiquitination. TAK-243 (MLN7243) induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, abrogates NF-κB pathway activation and promotes apoptosis.
  • HY-13982
    JSH-23
    Inhibitor 99.11%
    JSH-23 is an NF-κB inhibitor which inhibits NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 7.1 μM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages RAW 264.7. JSH-23 inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 without affecting IκBα degradation.
  • HY-W011474
    Geranylgeraniol
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Geranylgeraniol is an orally acitve vitamin K2 sub-type, an intermediate of the mevalonate pathway. Geranylgeraniol targets NF-kB signaling pathway and could alleviate LPS-induced microglial inflammation in animal model.
  • HY-W016412
    Coenzyme Q0
    Inhibitor ≥99.0%
    Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) is a potent, oral active ubiquinone compound can be derived from Antrodia cinnamomea. Coenzyme Q0 induces apoptosis and autophagy, suppresses of HER-2/AKT/mTOR signaling to potentiate the apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms. Coenzyme Q0 regulates NFκB/AP-1 activation and enhances Nrf2 stabilization in attenuation of inflammation and redox imbalance. Coenzyme Q0 has anti-angiogenic activity through downregulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and upregulation of HO-1 signaling.
  • HY-N2908
    Atraric acid
    Inhibitor
    Atraric acid (Methyl atrarate) is a specific androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Atraric acid represses the expression of the endogenous prostate specific antigen gene in both LNCaP and C4-2 cells. Atraric acid can also inhibit the synthesis of NO and cytokine, and suppress the MAPK-NFκB signaling pathway. Atraric acid can be used to research prostate diseases and inflammatory diseases.
  • HY-18738
    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium
    Inhibitor 99.04%
    Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium (Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) is a selective and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeable NF-κB inhibitor.
  • HY-14655
    Sulfasalazine
    Inhibitor 99.10%
    Sulfasalazine (NSC 667219) is an anti-rheumatic agent for the research of rheumatoid arthritis and ulcerative colitis. Sulfasalazine can suppress NF-κB activity. Sulfasalazine is a type 1 ferroptosis inducer.
  • HY-N0822
    Shikonin
    Inhibitor 99.80%
    Shikonin is a major component of a Chinese herbal medicine named zicao. Shikonin is a potent TMEM16A chloride channel inhibitor with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. Shikonin is a specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor and can also inhibit TNF-α and NF-κB pathway. Shikonin decreases exosome secretion through the inhibition of glycolysis. Shikonin inhibits AIM2 inflammasome activation.
  • HY-32735
    Triptolide
    Inhibitor 99.86%
    Triptolide is a diterpenoid triepoxide extracted from the root of Tripterygium wilfordii with immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antitumour effects. Triptolide is a NF-κB activation inhibitor.
  • HY-N0176
    Dihydroartemisinin
    Inhibitor 99.03%
    Dihydroartemisinin is a potent anti-malaria agent.
  • HY-14654
    Aspirin
    Inhibitor 99.66%
    Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) is an orally active, potent and irreversible inhibitor of cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2, with IC50 values of 5 and 210 μg/mL, respectively. Aspirin induces apoptosis. Aspirin inhibits the activation of NF-κB. Aspirin also inhibits platelet prostaglandin synthetase, and can prevent coronary artery and cerebrovascular thrombosis.
  • HY-N0197
    Baicalin
    Inhibitor 99.17%
    Baicalin, as a flavonoid glycoside, is an allosteric carnitine palmityl transferase 1 (CPT1) activator. Baicalin reduces the expression of NF-κB.
  • HY-10257
    BAY 11-7085
    Inhibitor 99.99%
    BAY 11-7085 (BAY 11-7083) is an inhibitor of NF-κB activation and phosphorylation of IκBα; it stabilizes IκBα with an IC50 of 10 μM.
  • HY-19356
    Rocaglamide
    Inhibitor 99.34%
    Rocaglamide (Roc-A) is isolated from the genus Aglaia and can be used for coughs, injuries, asthma and inflammatory skin diseases. Rocaglamide is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation in T-cells. Rocaglamide is a potent and selective heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation inhibitor with an IC50 of ~50 nM. Rocaglamide inhibits the function of the translation initiation factor eIF4A. Rocaglamide also has anticancer properties in leukemia.
  • HY-N0141
    Parthenolide
    Inhibitor 98.89%
    Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone found in the medicinal herb Feverfew. Parthenolide exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-κB activation; also inhibits HDAC1 protein without affecting other class I/II HDACs.
  • HY-10529
    Betulinic acid
    Modulator ≥98.0%
    Betulinic acid is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, acts as a eukaryotic topoisomerase I inhibitor, with an IC50 of 5 μM, and possesses anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties.
  • HY-P0151
    SN50
    Inhibitor 98.91%
    SN50 is a cell permeable inhibitor of NF-κB translocation.

NF-κB transcription factors are critical regulators of immunity, stress responses, apoptosis and differentiation. In mammals, there are five members of the transcription factor NF-κB family: RELA (p65), RELB and c-REL, and the precursor proteins NF-κB1 (p105) and NF-κB2 (p100), which are processed into p50 and p52, respectively. NF-κB transcription factors bind as dimers to κB sites in promoters and enhancers of a variety of genes and induce or repress transcription. NF-κB activation occurs via two major signaling pathways: the canonical and the non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways[1]

 

The canonical NF-κB pathway is triggered by signals from a large variety of immune receptors, such as TNFR, TLR, and IL-1R, which activate TAK1. TAK1 then activates IκB kinase (IKK) complex, composed of catalytic (IKKα and IKKβ) and regulatory (NEMO) subunits, via phosphorylation of IKKβ. Upon stimulation, the IKK complex, largely through IKKβ, phosphorylates members of the inhibitor of κB (IκB) family, such as IκBα and the IκB-like molecule p105, which sequester NF-κB members in the cytoplasm. IκBα associates with dimers of p50 and members of the REL family (RELA or c-REL), whereas p105 associates with p50 or REL (RELA or c-REL). Upon phosphorylation by IKK, IκBα and p105 are degradated in the proteasome, resulting in the nuclear translocation of canonical NF-κB family members, which bind to specific DNA elements, in the form of various dimeric complexes, including RELA-p50, c-REL-p50, and p50-p50. Atypical, IKK-independent pathways of NF-κB induction also provide mechanisms to integrate parallel signaling pathways to increase NF-κB activity, such as hypoxia, UV and genotoxic stress.

 

The non-canonical NF-κB pathway is induced by certain TNF superfamily members, such as CD40L, BAFF and lymphotoxin-β (LT-β), which stimulates the recruitment of TRAF2, TRAF3, cIAP1/2 to the receptor complex. Activated cIAP mediates K48 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of TRAF3, resulting in stabilization and accumulation of the NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK). NIK phosphorylates and activates IKKα, which in turn phosphorylates p100, triggering p100 processing, and leading to the generation of p52 and the nuclear translocation of p52 and RELB[2][3].

 

Reference:

[1]. Oeckinghaus A, et al. The NF-kappaB family of transcription factors and its regulation.Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Oct;1(4):a000034. 
[2]. Taniguchi K, et al. NF-κB, inflammation, immunity and cancer: coming of age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2018 May;18(5):309-324.
[3]. Perkins ND,et al. Integrating cell-signalling pathways with NF-kappaB and IKK function. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jan;8(1):49-62.

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