1. Epigenetics
    TGF-beta/Smad
  2. PKC

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (Synonyms: PMA)

Cat. No.: HY-18739 Purity: 99.08%
Handling Instructions

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester, is a commonly used PKC activator.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate Chemical Structure

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 16561-29-8

Size Price Stock Quantity
10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO USD 147 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
1 mg USD 60 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
5 mg USD 108 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
10 mg USD 156 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
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Customer Review

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Cell Death Dis. 2018 Aug 29;9(9):880.

    NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 treatment inhibits the activation of SOX4 and EMT process induced by CXCL1.
    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

    • Technical Information

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    Description

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester, is a commonly used PKC activator.

    IC50 & Target

    EC50: 11.7 nM (PKC)[1]

    In Vitro

    In order to examine the role of PKC in p38MAPK phosphorylation, the cells are stimulated with the PKC activator, PMA (100 nM), which mimics the binding of DAG, the natural activator of PKC, to the C1 region of the PKCs. p38MAPK phosphorylation by PMA is observed in the two cell types similar to that observed by GnRH in αT3-1 cells, that is, a slow sustained activation (3.2-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively at 30 min). The paradoxical findings that PKCs activated by GnRH and PMA play a differential role in p38MAPK phosphorylation may be explained by differential localization of the PKCs. Basal, GnRH- and PMA- stimulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation in αT3-1 cells is mediated by Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ mobilization, while in the differentiated LβT2 gonadotrope cells it is mediated only by Ca2+ mobilization[2].

    In Vivo

    PMA is a PKC agonist, which reverses the damage induced by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD). Thus, activation of the mitoKATP protected mitochondrial function in SOD and MDA via the PKC pathway[3].

    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : ≥ 62 mg/mL (100.51 mM)

    *"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

    Preparing
    Stock Solutions
    Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 1.6212 mL 8.1060 mL 16.2119 mL
    5 mM 0.3242 mL 1.6212 mL 3.2424 mL
    10 mM 0.1621 mL 0.8106 mL 1.6212 mL
    *Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
    In Vivo:
    • 1.

      Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is dissolved in DMSO and then diluted with sterile saline[4].

    References
    Cell Assay
    [2]

    αT3-1 and LβT-2 cells are grown in monolayer cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and L-glutamine 2 mM, penicillin and streptomycin (100 units/mL) in humidified incubator 5% CO2 at 37°C. Serum starvation is with 0.1% FCS in the same medium for 16 h. GnRH and PMA are then added for the length of time as indicated. In general, αT3-1 cells are transiently transfected by ExGen 500 or by jetPRIME, while LβT2 cells only by jetPRIME transfection reagent. For experiments with dominant-negative (DN) PKCs, αT3-1 cells (in 6 cm plates) are transfected with 1.5 μg of p38α-GFP with 3 μg of control vector, pCDNA3, or with 3 μg of the DN-PKCs constructs. For LβT2 cells, transfections are performed (in 10 cm plates) with 4 μg of p38α-GFP along with 9 μg of control vector, pCDNA3, or with 9 μg of the DN-PKCs constructs. Approximately 30 h after transfection, the cells are serum starved (0.1% FCS) for 16 h and later stimulated with GnRH or PMA, washed twice with ice-cold PBS, treated with the lysis buffer, followed by one freeze-thaw cycle. Cells are harvested; following centrifugation (15,000×g, 15 min, 4°C) supernatants are taken for immunoprecipitation experiments[2].

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Animal Administration
    [3]

    Rats[3]
    All experiments qre performed with male Wistar rats (weighing 250-280 g). One hundred and thirty-five Wistar rats are randomly divided into seven groups. (1) Rats in the sham group (n=21) are given a lateral cerebral ventricle injection of 0.9% normal saline; (2) Rats in the IR group (n=21) are given a lateral cerebral ventricle injection of 0.9% normal saline 30 min before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); (3) Rats in the Carbenoxolone (CBX) group (n=21) are given a lateral cerebral ventricle injection of CBX (5 μg/mL×10 μL) 30 min before MCAO; (4) Rats in the Diazoxide (DZX) group (n=21) are given a lateral cerebral ventricle injection of DZX (2 mM×30 μL) 30 min prior to MCAO; (5) Rats in the 5-HD group (n=21) are given a lateral cerebral ventricle injection of 5-HD (100 mM×10 μL), and after 10 min, DZX is injected 15 min prior to MCAO; (6) The rats in the DZX + Ro group (n=15) are given a lateral cerebral ventricle injection of DZX, and after 10 min, Ro-31-8425 (400 μg/kg) is injected 15 min prior to MCAO; (7) The rats in the 5-HD+PMA group (n=15) are given an intraperitoneal injection of PMA (200 μg/kg) after the injection of 5-HD and DZX.

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References
    Molecular Weight

    616.83

    Formula

    C₃₆H₅₆O₈

    CAS No.

    16561-29-8

    SMILES

    CCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O[[email protected]]([[email protected]]1C)[[email protected]]2(OC(C)=O)[[email protected]@]([[email protected]@](C=C(CO)C[[email protected]]34O)([H])[[email protected]@]1(O)[[email protected]]4([H])C=C(C)C3=O)([H])C2(C)C)=O

    Storage
    Powder -20°C 3 years
      4°C 2 years
    In solvent -80°C 6 months
      -20°C 1 month
    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere

    Purity: 99.08%

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    Product Name:
    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
    Cat. No.:
    HY-18739
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    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    Cat. No.: HY-18739