1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Cell Cycle/DNA Damage
    Epigenetics
  3. HDAC

HDAC

HDAC (Histone deacetylases) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O=C-CH3) from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on ahistone, allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly. This is important because DNA is wrapped around histones, and DNA expression is regulated by acetylation and de-acetylation. Its action is opposite to that of histone acetyltransferase. HDAC proteins are now also called lysine deacetylases (KDAC), to describe their function rather than their target, which also includes non-histone proteins. Together with the acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases and the acetoin utilization proteins, the histone deacetylases form an ancient protein superfamily known as the histone deacetylase superfamily.

HDAC Isoform Specific Products:

  • HDAC

  • HDAC1

  • HDAC2

  • HDAC3

  • HDAC4

  • HDAC5

  • HDAC6

  • HDAC7

  • HDAC8

  • HDAC9

  • HDAC10

  • HDAC11

  • HD1

  • HD2

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-15144
    Trichostatin A Inhibitor 99.53%
    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent and specific inhibitor of HDAC class I/II, with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM for HDAC.
  • HY-10221
    Vorinostat Inhibitor 99.90%
    Vorinostat (SAHA) is a potent and orally active pan-inhibitor of HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 (Class I), HDAC7 (Class II) and HDAC11 (Class IV), with ID50 values of 10 nM and 20 nM for HDAC1 and HDAC3, respectively. Vorinostat induces cell apoptosis. Vorinostat is also an effective inhibitor of human papillomaviruse (HPV)-18 DNA amplification.
  • HY-10224
    Panobinostat Inhibitor 99.20%
    Panobinostat (LBH589; NVP-LBH589) is a potent and orally active non-selective HDAC inhibitor, and has antineoplastic activities. Panobinostat induces HIV-1 virus production even at low concentration range 8-31 nM, stimulates HIV-1 expression in latently infected cells. Panobinostat induces cell apoptosis and autophagy. Panobinostat can be used for the study of refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.
  • HY-12163
    Entinostat Inhibitor 99.65%
    Entinostat is an oral and selective class I HDAC inhibitor, with IC50s of 243 nM, 453 nM, and 248 nM for HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, respectively.
  • HY-10585
    Valproic acid Inhibitor >98.0%
    Valproic acid (VPA; 2-Propylpentanoic Acid) is an HDAC inhibitor, with IC50 in the range of 0.5 and 2 mM, also inhibits HDAC1 (IC50, 400 μM), and induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. Valproic acid activates Notch1 signaling and inhibits proliferation in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Valproic acid sodium salt is used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.
  • HY-135890
    CG347B Inhibitor 98.84%
    CG347B is a selective HDAC6 inhibitor.
  • HY-W009776
    Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid Inhibitor >98.0%
    Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (Suberohydroxamic acid; SBHA) is a competitive and cell-permeable HDAC1 and HDAC3 inhibitor with ID50 values of 0.25 μM and 0.30 μM, respectively.Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid renders MM cells susceptible to apoptosis and facilitates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways.Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid can be used for the study of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • HY-19618
    BRD3308 Inhibitor
    BRD3308 is a highly selective HDAC3 inhibitor with an IC50 of 54 nM. BRD3308 is 23-fold selectivity for HDAC3 over HDAC1 (IC50 of 1.26 μM) or HDAC2 (IC50 of 1.34 μM). BRD3308 suppresses pancreatic β-cell apoptosis induced by inflammatory cytokines or glucolipotoxic stress, and increases functional insulin release. BRD3308 activates HIV-1 transcription and disrupts HIV-1 latency.
  • HY-15149
    Romidepsin Inhibitor 99.98%
    Romidepsin (FK 228) is a Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Romidepsin (FK 228) inhibits HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC4, and HDAC6 with IC50s of 36 nM, 47 nM, 510 nM and 1.4 μM, respectively. Romidepsin (FK 228) is produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, induces cell G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis.
  • HY-13755
    Sulforaphane Inhibitor 99.75%
    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate present naturally in widely consumed vegetables. Sulforaphane increases tumor suppressor protein transcription and inhibits histone deacetylase activity. Sulforaphane activates Nrf2 and inhibits high glucose-induced progression of pancreatic cancer via AMPK dependent signaling. Sulforaphane has shown anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.
  • HY-B0350A
    Sodium Butyrate Inhibitor >98.00%
    Sodium Butyrate (Butanoic acid sodium salt) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, with anti-tumor effects in several cancers.
  • HY-16026
    Ricolinostat Inhibitor 99.87%
    Ricolinostat (ACY-1215) is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 5 nM. ACY-1215 also inhibits HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 with IC50s of 58, 48, and 51 nM, respectively.
  • HY-A0281
    4-Phenylbutyric acid Inhibitor 99.98%
    4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is an inhibitor of HDAC and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, used in cancer and infection research.
  • HY-15654
    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate Inhibitor 99.80%
    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA sodium) is an inhibitor of HDAC and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, used in cancer and infection research.
  • HY-109015
    Tucidinostat Inhibitor 98.01%
    Tucidinostat (Chidamide) is a potent and orally bioavailable HDAC enzymes class I (HDAC1/2/3) and class IIb (HDAC10) inhibitor, with IC50s of 95, 160, 67 and 78 nM, less active on HDAC8 and HDAC11 (IC50s, 733 nM, 432 nM, respectively), and shows no effect on HDAC4/5/6/7/9.
  • HY-13522
    Fimepinostat Inhibitor 99.95%
    Fimepinostat (CUDC-907) potently inhibits class I PI3Ks as well as classes I and II HDAC enzymes with an IC50 of 19/54/39 nM and 1.7/5.0/1.8/2.8 nM for PI3Kα/PI3Kβ/PI3Kδ and HDAC1/HDAC2/HDAC3/HDAC10 , respectively.
  • HY-10225
    Belinostat Inhibitor 99.97%
    Belinostat (PXD101; PX105684) is a potent HDAC inhibitor with an IC50 of 27 nM in HeLa cell extracts.
  • HY-10585A
    Valproic acid sodium salt Inhibitor >98.0%
    Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium Valproate) is an HDAC inhibitor, with IC50 in the range of 0.5 and 2 mM, also inhibits HDAC1 (IC50, 400 μM), and induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. Valproic acid sodium salt activates Notch1 signaling and inhibits proliferation in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Valproic acid sodium salt is used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.
  • HY-13909
    RGFP966 Inhibitor 99.76%
    RGFP966 is a highly selective HDAC3 inhibitor with an IC50 of 80 nM and shows no inhibition to other HDACs at concentrations up to 15 μM.
  • HY-12164
    Mocetinostat Inhibitor 99.81%
    Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) is a potent, orally active and isotype-selective HDAC (Class I/IV) inhibitor with IC50s of 0.15, 0.29, 1.66 and 0.59 μM for HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC11, respectively. Mocetinostat shows no inhibition on HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, HDAC7, or HDAC8.

TCR, GPCR and HDAC II interaction: Diverse agonists act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate the PKC-PKD axis, CaMK, Rho, or MHC binding to antigens stimulates TCR to activate PKD, leading to phosphorylation of class II HDACs. Phospho-HDACs dissociate from MEF2, bind 14-3-3, and are exported to the cytoplasm through a CRM1-dependent mechanism. CRM1 is inhibited by leptomycin B (LMB). Release of MEF2 from class II HDACs allows p300 to dock on MEF2 and stimulate gene expression. Dephosphorylation of class II HDACs in the cytoplasm enables reentry into the nucleus[1].

 

TLR: TLR signaling is initiated by ligand binding to receptors. The recruitment of TLR domain-containing adaptor protein MyD88 is repressed by HDAC6, whereas NF-κB and MTA-1 can be negatively regulated by HDAC1/2/3 and HDAC2, respectively. Acetylation by HATs enhance MKP-1 which inhibits p38-mediated inflammatory responses, while HDAC1/2/3 inhibits MKP-1 activity. HDAC1 and HDAC8 repress, whereas HDAC6 promotes, IRF function in response to viral challenge. HDAC11 inhibits IL-10 expression and HDAC1 and HDAC2 represses IFNγ-dependent activation of the CIITA transcription factor, thus affecting antigen presentation[2][3].

 

IRNAR: IFN-α/β induce activation of the type I IFN receptor and then bring the receptor-associated JAKs into proximity. JAK adds phosphates to the receptor. STATs bind to the phosphates and then phosphorylated by JAKs to form a dimer, leading to nuclear translocation and gene expression. HDACs positively regulate STATs and PZLF to promote antiviral responses and IFN-induced gene expression[2][3].

 

Cell cycle: In G1 phase, HDAC, Retinoblastoma protein (RB), E2F and polypeptide (DP) form a repressor complex. HDAC acts on surrounding chromatin, causing it to adopt a closed chromatin conformation, and transcription is repressed. Prior to the G1-S transition, phosphorylation of RB by CDKs dissociates the repressor complex. Transcription factors (TFs) gain access to their binding sites and, together with the now unmasked E2F activation domain. E2F is then free to activate transcription by contacting basal factors or by contacting histone acetyltransferases, such as CBP, that can alter chromatin structure[4].

 

The function of non-histone proteins is also regulated by HATs/HDACs. p53: HDAC1 impairs the function of p53. p53 is acetylated under conditions of stress or HDAC inhibition by its cofactor CREB binding protein (CBP) and the transcription of genes involved in differentiation is activated. HSP90: HSP90 is a chaperone that complexes with other chaperones, such as p23, to maintain correct conformational folding of its client proteins. HDAC6 deacetylates HSP90. Inhibition of HDAC6 would result in hyperacetylated HSP90, which would be unable to interact with its co-chaperones and properly lead to misfolded client proteins being targeted for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system[5][6].
 

Reference:

[1]. Vega RB, et al. Protein kinases C and D mediate agonist-dependent cardiac hypertrophy through nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5.Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;24(19):8374-85.
[2]. Shakespear MR, et al. Histone deacetylases as regulators of inflammation and immunity. Trends Immunol. 2011 Jul;32(7):335-43.
[3]. Suliman BA, et al. HDACi: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications in the innate immune system.Immunol Cell Biol. 2012 Jan;90(1):23-32. 
[4]. Brehm A, et al. Retinoblastoma protein meets chromatin.Trends Biochem Sci. 1999 Apr;24(4):142-5.
[5]. Butler R, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutics for polyglutamine disorders.Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Oct;7(10):784-96
[6]. Minucci S, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and the promise of epigenetic (and more) treatments for cancer.Nat Rev Cancer. 2006 Jan;6(1):38-51.

Targets/MCE-HDAC-Signaling-Pathway.png

TCR, GPCR and HDAC II interaction: Diverse agonists act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate the PKC-PKD axis, CaMK, Rho, or MHC binding to antigens stimulates TCR to activate PKD, leading to phosphorylation of class II HDACs. Phospho-HDACs dissociate from MEF2, bind 14-3-3, and are exported to the cytoplasm through a CRM1-dependent mechanism. CRM1 is inhibited by leptomycin B (LMB). Release of MEF2 from class II HDACs allows p300 to dock on MEF2 and stimulate gene expression. Dephosphorylation of class II HDACs in the cytoplasm enables reentry into the nucleus[1].

 

TLR: TLR signaling is initiated by ligand binding to receptors. The recruitment of TLR domain-containing adaptor protein MyD88 is repressed by HDAC6, whereas NF-κB and MTA-1 can be negatively regulated by HDAC1/2/3 and HDAC2, respectively. Acetylation by HATs enhance MKP-1 which inhibits p38-mediated inflammatory responses, while HDAC1/2/3 inhibits MKP-1 activity. HDAC1 and HDAC8 repress, whereas HDAC6 promotes, IRF function in response to viral challenge. HDAC11 inhibits IL-10 expression and HDAC1 and HDAC2 represses IFNγ-dependent activation of the CIITA transcription factor, thus affecting antigen presentation[2][3].

 

IRNAR: IFN-α/β induce activation of the type I IFN receptor and then bring the receptor-associated JAKs into proximity. JAK adds phosphates to the receptor. STATs bind to the phosphates and then phosphorylated by JAKs to form a dimer, leading to nuclear translocation and gene expression. HDACs positively regulate STATs and PZLF to promote antiviral responses and IFN-induced gene expression[2][3].

 

Cell cycle: In G1 phase, HDAC, Retinoblastoma protein (RB), E2F and polypeptide (DP) form a repressor complex. HDAC acts on surrounding chromatin, causing it to adopt a closed chromatin conformation, and transcription is repressed. Prior to the G1-S transition, phosphorylation of RB by CDKs dissociates the repressor complex. Transcription factors (TFs) gain access to their binding sites and, together with the now unmasked E2F activation domain. E2F is then free to activate transcription by contacting basal factors or by contacting histone acetyltransferases, such as CBP, that can alter chromatin structure[4].

 

The function of non-histone proteins is also regulated by HATs/HDACs. p53: HDAC1 impairs the function of p53. p53 is acetylated under conditions of stress or HDAC inhibition by its cofactor CREB binding protein (CBP) and the transcription of genes involved in differentiation is activated. HSP90: HSP90 is a chaperone that complexes with other chaperones, such as p23, to maintain correct conformational folding of its client proteins. HDAC6 deacetylates HSP90. Inhibition of HDAC6 would result in hyperacetylated HSP90, which would be unable to interact with its co-chaperones and properly lead to misfolded client proteins being targeted for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system[5][6].
 

Reference:

[1]. Vega RB, et al. Protein kinases C and D mediate agonist-dependent cardiac hypertrophy through nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5.Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;24(19):8374-85.
[2]. Shakespear MR, et al. Histone deacetylases as regulators of inflammation and immunity. Trends Immunol. 2011 Jul;32(7):335-43.
[3]. Suliman BA, et al. HDACi: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications in the innate immune system.Immunol Cell Biol. 2012 Jan;90(1):23-32. 
[4]. Brehm A, et al. Retinoblastoma protein meets chromatin.Trends Biochem Sci. 1999 Apr;24(4):142-5.
[5]. Butler R, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutics for polyglutamine disorders.Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Oct;7(10):784-96
[6]. Minucci S, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and the promise of epigenetic (and more) treatments for cancer.Nat Rev Cancer. 2006 Jan;6(1):38-51.

Isoform Specific Products

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