1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Cell Cycle/DNA Damage
    Epigenetics
  3. HDAC

HDAC

HDAC (Histone deacetylases) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O=C-CH3) from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on ahistone, allowing the histones to wrap the DNA more tightly. This is important because DNA is wrapped around histones, and DNA expression is regulated by acetylation and de-acetylation. Its action is opposite to that of histone acetyltransferase. HDAC proteins are now also called lysine deacetylases (KDAC), to describe their function rather than their target, which also includes non-histone proteins. Together with the acetylpolyamine amidohydrolases and the acetoin utilization proteins, the histone deacetylases form an ancient protein superfamily known as the histone deacetylase superfamily.

HDAC Isoform Specific Products:

  • HDAC

  • HDAC1

  • HDAC2

  • HDAC3

  • HDAC4

  • HDAC5

  • HDAC6

  • HDAC7

  • HDAC8

  • HDAC9

  • HDAC10

  • HDAC11

  • HD1

  • HD2

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-15144
    Trichostatin A
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent and specific inhibitor of HDAC class I/II, with an IC50 value of 1.8 nM for HDAC.
  • HY-10221
    Vorinostat
    Inhibitor
    Vorinostat (SAHA) is a potent and orally active pan-inhibitor of HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC3 (Class I), HDAC7 (Class II) and HDAC11 (Class IV), with ID50 values of 10 nM and 20 nM for HDAC1 and HDAC3, respectively. Vorinostat induces cell apoptosis. Vorinostat is also an effective inhibitor of human papillomaviruse (HPV)-18 DNA amplification.
  • HY-A0281
    4-Phenylbutyric acid
    Inhibitor
    4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is an inhibitor of HDAC and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, used in cancer and infection research.
  • HY-10224
    Panobinostat
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Panobinostat (LBH589; NVP-LBH589) is a potent and orally active non-selective HDAC inhibitor, and has antineoplastic activities. Panobinostat induces HIV-1 virus production even at low concentration range 8-31 nM, stimulates HIV-1 expression in latently infected cells. Panobinostat induces cell apoptosis and autophagy. Panobinostat can be used for the study of refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma.
  • HY-10585
    Valproic acid
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Valproic acid (VPA; 2-Propylpentanoic Acid) is an HDAC inhibitor, with IC50 in the range of 0.5 and 2 mM, also inhibits HDAC1 (IC50, 400 μM), and induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. Valproic acid activates Notch1 signaling and inhibits proliferation in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Valproic acid sodium salt is used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.
  • HY-138799
    KA2507
    Inhibitor 98.09%
    KA2507 is a potent, orally active and selective HDAC6 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. KA2507 shows antitumor activities and immune modulatory effects in preclinical models.
  • HY-138831
    AES-350
    Inhibitor 98.02%
    AES-350 is a potent and orally active HDAC6 inhibitor with an IC50 and a Ki of 0.0244 μM and 0.035 μM, respectively. AES-350 is also against HDAC3, HDAC8 in an enzymatic activity assay with IC50 values of 0.187 μM and 0.245 μM, respectively. AES-350 triggers apoptosis in AML cells through HDAC inhibition and can be used for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) research.
  • HY-120448
    QTX125
    Inhibitor
    QTX125 is a potent and highly selective HDAC6 inhibitor. QTX125 exhibits excellent selectivity over other HDACs. QTX125 has antitumor effects.
  • HY-13755
    Sulforaphane
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate present naturally in widely consumed vegetables. Sulforaphane increases tumor suppressor protein transcription and inhibits histone deacetylase activity. Sulforaphane activates Nrf2 and inhibits high glucose-induced progression of pancreatic cancer via AMPK dependent signaling. Sulforaphane has shown anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities.
  • HY-12163
    Entinostat
    Inhibitor 99.65%
    Entinostat is an oral and selective class I HDAC inhibitor, with IC50s of 243 nM, 453 nM, and 248 nM for HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, respectively.
  • HY-15149
    Romidepsin
    Inhibitor 99.98%
    Romidepsin (FK 228) is a Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Romidepsin (FK 228) inhibits HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC4, and HDAC6 with IC50s of 36 nM, 47 nM, 510 nM and 1.4 μM, respectively. Romidepsin (FK 228) is produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, induces cell G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis.
  • HY-109015
    Tucidinostat
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Tucidinostat (Chidamide) is a potent and orally bioavailable HDAC enzymes class I (HDAC1/2/3) and class IIb (HDAC10) inhibitor, with IC50s of 95, 160, 67 and 78 nM, less active on HDAC8 and HDAC11 (IC50s, 733 nM, 432 nM, respectively), and shows no effect on HDAC4/5/6/7/9.
  • HY-16026
    Ricolinostat
    Inhibitor
    Ricolinostat (ACY-1215) is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 5 nM. ACY-1215 also inhibits HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 with IC50s of 58, 48, and 51 nM, respectively.
  • HY-15654
    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate
    Inhibitor 99.80%
    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA sodium) is an inhibitor of HDAC and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, used in cancer and infection research.
  • HY-10225
    Belinostat
    Inhibitor 99.94%
    Belinostat (PXD101; PX105684) is a potent HDAC inhibitor with an IC50 of 27 nM in HeLa cell extracts.
  • HY-10585A
    Valproic acid sodium salt
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium Valproate) is an HDAC inhibitor, with IC50 in the range of 0.5 and 2 mM, also inhibits HDAC1 (IC50, 400 μM), and induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2. Valproic acid sodium salt activates Notch1 signaling and inhibits proliferation in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Valproic acid sodium salt is used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.
  • HY-13909
    RGFP966
    Inhibitor 99.81%
    RGFP966 is a highly selective HDAC3 inhibitor with an IC50 of 80 nM and shows no inhibition to other HDACs at concentrations up to 15 μM. RGFP966 can penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB).
  • HY-13271A
    Tubastatin A
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with an IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay, and is selective (1000-fold more) against all other isozymes except HDAC8 (57-fold more).
  • HY-10528
    Tasquinimod
    Modulator
    Tasquinimod is an oral antiangiogenic agent, which has the potential for castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment. Tasquinimod binds to the regulatory Zn2+ binding domain of HDAC4 with Kd of 10-30 nM. Tasquinimod also is a S100A9 inhibitor.
  • HY-12164
    Mocetinostat
    Inhibitor 99.43%
    Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) is a potent, orally active and isotype-selective HDAC (Class I/IV) inhibitor with IC50s of 0.15, 0.29, 1.66 and 0.59 μM for HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC11, respectively. Mocetinostat shows no inhibition on HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, HDAC7, or HDAC8.

TCR, GPCR and HDAC II interaction: Diverse agonists act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate the PKC-PKD axis, CaMK, Rho, or MHC binding to antigens stimulates TCR to activate PKD, leading to phosphorylation of class II HDACs. Phospho-HDACs dissociate from MEF2, bind 14-3-3, and are exported to the cytoplasm through a CRM1-dependent mechanism. CRM1 is inhibited by leptomycin B (LMB). Release of MEF2 from class II HDACs allows p300 to dock on MEF2 and stimulate gene expression. Dephosphorylation of class II HDACs in the cytoplasm enables reentry into the nucleus[1].

 

TLR: TLR signaling is initiated by ligand binding to receptors. The recruitment of TLR domain-containing adaptor protein MyD88 is repressed by HDAC6, whereas NF-κB and MTA-1 can be negatively regulated by HDAC1/2/3 and HDAC2, respectively. Acetylation by HATs enhance MKP-1 which inhibits p38-mediated inflammatory responses, while HDAC1/2/3 inhibits MKP-1 activity. HDAC1 and HDAC8 repress, whereas HDAC6 promotes, IRF function in response to viral challenge. HDAC11 inhibits IL-10 expression and HDAC1 and HDAC2 represses IFNγ-dependent activation of the CIITA transcription factor, thus affecting antigen presentation[2][3].

 

IRNAR: IFN-α/β induce activation of the type I IFN receptor and then bring the receptor-associated JAKs into proximity. JAK adds phosphates to the receptor. STATs bind to the phosphates and then phosphorylated by JAKs to form a dimer, leading to nuclear translocation and gene expression. HDACs positively regulate STATs and PZLF to promote antiviral responses and IFN-induced gene expression[2][3].

 

Cell cycle: In G1 phase, HDAC, Retinoblastoma protein (RB), E2F and polypeptide (DP) form a repressor complex. HDAC acts on surrounding chromatin, causing it to adopt a closed chromatin conformation, and transcription is repressed. Prior to the G1-S transition, phosphorylation of RB by CDKs dissociates the repressor complex. Transcription factors (TFs) gain access to their binding sites and, together with the now unmasked E2F activation domain. E2F is then free to activate transcription by contacting basal factors or by contacting histone acetyltransferases, such as CBP, that can alter chromatin structure[4].

 

The function of non-histone proteins is also regulated by HATs/HDACs. p53: HDAC1 impairs the function of p53. p53 is acetylated under conditions of stress or HDAC inhibition by its cofactor CREB binding protein (CBP) and the transcription of genes involved in differentiation is activated. HSP90: HSP90 is a chaperone that complexes with other chaperones, such as p23, to maintain correct conformational folding of its client proteins. HDAC6 deacetylates HSP90. Inhibition of HDAC6 would result in hyperacetylated HSP90, which would be unable to interact with its co-chaperones and properly lead to misfolded client proteins being targeted for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system[5][6].
 

Reference:

[1]. Vega RB, et al. Protein kinases C and D mediate agonist-dependent cardiac hypertrophy through nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5.Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;24(19):8374-85.
[2]. Shakespear MR, et al. Histone deacetylases as regulators of inflammation and immunity. Trends Immunol. 2011 Jul;32(7):335-43.
[3]. Suliman BA, et al. HDACi: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications in the innate immune system.Immunol Cell Biol. 2012 Jan;90(1):23-32. 
[4]. Brehm A, et al. Retinoblastoma protein meets chromatin.Trends Biochem Sci. 1999 Apr;24(4):142-5.
[5]. Butler R, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutics for polyglutamine disorders.Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Oct;7(10):784-96
[6]. Minucci S, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and the promise of epigenetic (and more) treatments for cancer.Nat Rev Cancer. 2006 Jan;6(1):38-51.

Targets/MCE-HDAC-Signaling-Pathway.png

TCR, GPCR and HDAC II interaction: Diverse agonists act through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate the PKC-PKD axis, CaMK, Rho, or MHC binding to antigens stimulates TCR to activate PKD, leading to phosphorylation of class II HDACs. Phospho-HDACs dissociate from MEF2, bind 14-3-3, and are exported to the cytoplasm through a CRM1-dependent mechanism. CRM1 is inhibited by leptomycin B (LMB). Release of MEF2 from class II HDACs allows p300 to dock on MEF2 and stimulate gene expression. Dephosphorylation of class II HDACs in the cytoplasm enables reentry into the nucleus[1].

 

TLR: TLR signaling is initiated by ligand binding to receptors. The recruitment of TLR domain-containing adaptor protein MyD88 is repressed by HDAC6, whereas NF-κB and MTA-1 can be negatively regulated by HDAC1/2/3 and HDAC2, respectively. Acetylation by HATs enhance MKP-1 which inhibits p38-mediated inflammatory responses, while HDAC1/2/3 inhibits MKP-1 activity. HDAC1 and HDAC8 repress, whereas HDAC6 promotes, IRF function in response to viral challenge. HDAC11 inhibits IL-10 expression and HDAC1 and HDAC2 represses IFNγ-dependent activation of the CIITA transcription factor, thus affecting antigen presentation[2][3].

 

IRNAR: IFN-α/β induce activation of the type I IFN receptor and then bring the receptor-associated JAKs into proximity. JAK adds phosphates to the receptor. STATs bind to the phosphates and then phosphorylated by JAKs to form a dimer, leading to nuclear translocation and gene expression. HDACs positively regulate STATs and PZLF to promote antiviral responses and IFN-induced gene expression[2][3].

 

Cell cycle: In G1 phase, HDAC, Retinoblastoma protein (RB), E2F and polypeptide (DP) form a repressor complex. HDAC acts on surrounding chromatin, causing it to adopt a closed chromatin conformation, and transcription is repressed. Prior to the G1-S transition, phosphorylation of RB by CDKs dissociates the repressor complex. Transcription factors (TFs) gain access to their binding sites and, together with the now unmasked E2F activation domain. E2F is then free to activate transcription by contacting basal factors or by contacting histone acetyltransferases, such as CBP, that can alter chromatin structure[4].

 

The function of non-histone proteins is also regulated by HATs/HDACs. p53: HDAC1 impairs the function of p53. p53 is acetylated under conditions of stress or HDAC inhibition by its cofactor CREB binding protein (CBP) and the transcription of genes involved in differentiation is activated. HSP90: HSP90 is a chaperone that complexes with other chaperones, such as p23, to maintain correct conformational folding of its client proteins. HDAC6 deacetylates HSP90. Inhibition of HDAC6 would result in hyperacetylated HSP90, which would be unable to interact with its co-chaperones and properly lead to misfolded client proteins being targeted for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system[5][6].
 

Reference:

[1]. Vega RB, et al. Protein kinases C and D mediate agonist-dependent cardiac hypertrophy through nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5.Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;24(19):8374-85.
[2]. Shakespear MR, et al. Histone deacetylases as regulators of inflammation and immunity. Trends Immunol. 2011 Jul;32(7):335-43.
[3]. Suliman BA, et al. HDACi: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications in the innate immune system.Immunol Cell Biol. 2012 Jan;90(1):23-32. 
[4]. Brehm A, et al. Retinoblastoma protein meets chromatin.Trends Biochem Sci. 1999 Apr;24(4):142-5.
[5]. Butler R, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors as therapeutics for polyglutamine disorders.Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006 Oct;7(10):784-96
[6]. Minucci S, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors and the promise of epigenetic (and more) treatments for cancer.Nat Rev Cancer. 2006 Jan;6(1):38-51.

Isoform Specific Products

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