1. Signaling Pathways
  2. GPCR/G Protein
  3. Adenylate Cyclase

Adenylate Cyclase

Adenylyl cyclase

Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are enzymes that catalyze the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Adenylyl cyclases integrate positive and negative signals that act through G protein-coupled cell-surface receptors with other extracellular stimuli to finely regulate levels of cAMP within the cell. Humans express nine isoforms of membranous ACs and a soluble AC.

Based on regulatory properties, transmembrane ACs are classified into four groups: Group I: Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated AC1, AC3, AC8; Group II: Gβγ-stimulated and Ca2+-insensitive AC2, AC4, AC7; Group III: Gαi/Ca2+/PKA-inhibited AC5, AC6; Group IV: forskolin/Ca2+/Gβγ-insensitive AC9. The soluble AC, unlike the transmembrane ACs, is insensitive to hormones, G proteins and forskolin, a diterpene extracted from the root of the plant Coleus forskohlii that directly activates all isoforms of transmembrane ACs except AC9.

Adenylate Cyclase Related Products (42):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-15371
    Forskolin
    Activator 99.78%
    Forskolin (Coleonol) is a potent adenylate cyclase activator with an IC50 of 41 nM and an EC50 of 0.5 μM for type I adenylyl cyclase. Forskolin is also an inducer of intracellular cAMP formation. Forskolin induces differentiation of various cell types and activates pregnane X receptor (PXR) and FXR. Forskolin exerts a inotropic effect on the heart, and has platelet antiaggregatory and antihypertensive actions. Forskolin also induces autophagy.
    Forskolin
  • HY-100396
    SQ22536
    Inhibitor 98.41%
    SQ22536 is an effective adenylate cyclase (AC) inhibitor.
    SQ22536
  • HY-P1446
    Cholera toxin
    Activator
    Cholera toxin (Choleragen), an AB(5)-subunit toxin, enters host cells by binding the ganglioside GM1 at the plasma membrane (PM) and travels retrograde through the trans-Golgi Network into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Choleragen activates adenylate cyclase by catalyzing ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein.
    Cholera toxin
  • HY-135878
    2',5'-Dideoxyadenosine
    Inhibitor 99.93%
    2',5'-Dideoxyadenosine is a potent and non-competitive adenylyl cyclase inhibitor via binding the P-site with an IC50 of 3 µM . 2',5'-Dideoxyadenosine is a nucleoside analog and exerts a potent antiadrenergic action in heart.
    2',5'-Dideoxyadenosine
  • HY-103193
    NKH477
    Activator 99.86%
    NKH477 (Colforsin dapropate hydrochloride) directly activates the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase and increases intracellular cAMP. NKH477 is a forskolin derivative that improves cardiac failure mainly through its beneficial effects on diastolic cardiac function. NKH477 exerts an antiproliferative effect in vivo with an altered cytokine profile to inhibit the acute rejection of rat orthotopic lung allografts.
    NKH477
  • HY-103192
    MDL12330A
    Inhibitor ≥99.0%
    MDL12330A (RMI12330A) is an adenyl cyclase inhibitor. MDL12330A inhibits the vasopressin action on the short-circuit current (SCC). MDL12330A is also an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase.
    MDL12330A
  • HY-108565
    BMY 45778
    Activator
    BMY 45778 is a non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetic. BMY 45778 inhibits human (IC50 = 35 nM), rabbit (IC50: 136 nM) and rat (IC50 : 1.3 μM) platelet aggregation. BMY 45778 also activates adenylyl cyclase. BMY 45778 is a partial agonist at the prostacyclin receptor.
    BMY 45778
  • HY-P3117
    PACAP (6-27) (human, ovine, rat)
    Antagonist
    PACAP (6-27) (human, ovine, rat) is a PACAP receptor antagonist that blocks the canine adrenal catecholamine response to exogenous vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). PACAP (6-27) (human, ovine, rat) has the potential to study cardiovascular and neurological diseases.
    PACAP (6-27) (human, ovine, rat)
  • HY-103194
    KH7
    Inhibitor ≥99.0%
    KH7 is a soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC)-specific inhibitor, with IC50s of 3-10 μM toward both recombinant purified human sACt protein and heterologously expressed sACt in cellular assays. KH7 is also a cAMP inhibitor.
    KH7
  • HY-100524
    LRE1
    Inhibitor 99.76%
    LRE1 is a specific and allosteric inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase.
    LRE1
  • HY-132298
    TDI-10229
    Inhibitor 99.41%
    TDI-10229 is a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, ADCY10). TDI-10229 displays nanomolar inhibition of sAC in both biochemical and cellular assays (IC50 of 195 nM) and exhibits mouse pharmacokinetic properties sufficient to warrant its use as an in vivo tool compound.
    TDI-10229
  • HY-B1124
    Fipexide
    Inhibitor
    Fipexide, a parachloro-phenossiacetic acid derivative, is an orally active nootropic agent. Fipexide reduces striatal adenylate cyclase activity. Fipexide has positive effect on cognitive performance by dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fipexide is used for senile dementia research. Fipexide acts as a chemical inducer in callus formation, shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium infection.
    Fipexide
  • HY-103430A
    SKF-83566
    Antagonist 99.86%
    SKF-83566 is a potent, blood-brain permeable and orally active D1-like dopamine receptor (D1DR) antagonist and a weaker competitive antagonist at the vascular 5-HT2 receptor (Ki=11 nM). SKF-83566 is a competitive DAT (dopamine transporter) inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.7 μM. SKF-83566 also shows selective inhibition for adenylyl cyclase 2 (AC2) over AC1 and AC5 in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta. SKF-83566 can be used for research of parkinson’s disease and nicotine craving alleviation.
    SKF-83566
  • HY-101279
    ST034307
    Inhibitor 98.46%
    ST034307 is a potent and selective adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) inhibitor, with IC50 of 2.3 μM.
    ST034307
  • HY-103195
    NKY80
    Inhibitor 99.69%
    NKY80 is a potent, selective and non-competitive adenylyl cyclase (AC) type V isoform inhibitor with IC50s of 8.3 µM, 132 µM and 1.7 mM for type V, III and II, respectively. NKY80 is a non-nucleoside quinazolinone and regulates the AC catalytic activity in heart and lung tissues.
    NKY80
  • HY-137167
    Guanylyl imidodiphosphate lithium
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) lithium, a non-hydrolyzable GTP analogue, increases adenylate cyclase activity.
    Guanylyl imidodiphosphate lithium
  • HY-151798
    TDI-11861
    Inhibitor 98.39%
    TDI-11861 is second-generation soluble Adenylyl Cyclase (sAC, ADCY10) inhibitor with slow dissociation rates. TDI-11861 inhibits sAC cellular with an IC50 value of 5.5 nM.
    TDI-11861
  • HY-B1124A
    Fipexide hydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.88%
    Fipexide hydrochloride, a parachloro-phenossiacetic acid derivative, is an orally active nootropic agent. Fipexide hydrochloride reduces striatal adenylate cyclase activity. Fipexide hydrochloride has positive effect on cognitive performance by dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fipexide hydrochloride is used for senile dementia research. Fipexide hydrochloride acts as a chemical inducer in callus formation, shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium infection.
    Fipexide hydrochloride
  • HY-P1852
    TIP 39, Tuberoinfundibular Neuropeptide
    Activator 99.84%
    TIP 39, Tuberoinfundibular Neuropeptide is a neuropeptide and parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) agonist. TIP 39 is highly conserved among species. TIP39 from all species activates adenylyl cyclase and elevates intracellular calcium levels through parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R).
    TIP 39, Tuberoinfundibular Neuropeptide
  • HY-P0004
    Lysipressin
    Activator 98.02%
    Lysipressin (Lysine vasopressin) is antidiuretic hormone that have been found in pigs and some marsupial families. Lysipressin induces contraction of the rabbit urinary bladder smooth muscle, activate adenylate-cyclase.
    Lysipressin