1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. Necrotic cells are usually recognized by the immune system as a danger signal and, thus, resulting in inflammation; in contrast, apoptotic death is quiet and orderly.

There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The extrinsic or death-receptor pathway is triggered by ligation of death receptors (members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, such as Fas or TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1)) that contain an intracellular death domain, which can recruit and activate caspase-8 through the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD; also known as MORT1) at the cell surface. This recruitment causes subsequent activation of downstream (effector) caspases, such as caspase-3, -6 or -7, without any involvement of the BCL-2 family.

Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.

Apoptosis Related Products (365):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib Activator 99.97%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is a cell-permeable, reversible, and selective proteasome inhibitor, and potently inhibits 20S proteasome (Ki=0.6 nM) by targeting a threonine residue. Bortezomib (PS-341) disrupts the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits NF-κB. Bortezomib (PS-341) is an anti-cancer drug and the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be used in humans.
  • HY-13453
    BAY 11-7082 Activator 99.42%
    BAY 11-7082 (BAY 11-7821) is an IKK Inhibitor. BAY 11-7082 (BAY 11-7821) decreases NF-κB by inhibiting TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of IκB-α. BAY 11-7082 inhibits ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 and USP21 with IC50s of 0.19 μM and 0.96 μM, respectively. BAY 11-7082 inhibits gasdermin D (GSDMD) pore formation in liposomes and inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis and IL-1β secretion in human and mouse cells.
  • HY-13629
    Etoposide Activator 99.65%
    Etoposide (VP-16; VP-16-213), a chemotherapy medication used for the treatments of a number of types of cancer, inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. Etoposide arrests cell cycle in G2 and induces apoptosis.
  • HY-B1756
    Rotenone Activator 98.12%
    Rotenone is an mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I inhibitor. Rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.
  • HY-13520
    Nocodazole Activator 98.68%
    Nocodazole is a rapidly-reversible inhibitor of microtubule. Nocodazole binds to β-tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, which prevents mitosis and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. Nocodazole inhibits Bcr-Abl, and activates CRISPR/Cas9.
  • HY-19696B
    Tauroursodeoxycholate dihydrate Inhibitor
    Tauroursodeoxycholate dihydrate (TUDCA dihydrate; UR 906 dihydrate; Taurolite dihydrate) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor. Tauroursodeoxycholate significantly reduces expression of apoptosis molecules, such as caspase-3 and caspase-12. Tauroursodeoxycholate also inhibits ERK.
  • HY-117282
    JG-98 Activator 99.97%
    JG-98, an allosteric heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) inhibitor, which binds tightly to a conserved site on Hsp70 and disrupts the Hsp70-Bag3 interaction. JG-98 shows anti-cancer activities affecting both cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages.
  • HY-16350
    NKP-1339 Activator
    NKP-1339 (IT-139) is the first-in-class ruthenium-based anticancer drug in clinical development against solid cancer with limited side effects. NKP-1339 induces G2/M cell cycle arrest, blockage of DNA synthesis, and induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. NKP-1339 has a high tumor targeting potential, strongly binds to serum proteins such as albumin and transferrin and activates in the reductive tumor milieu.
  • HY-10971
    Alisertib Activator 99.84%
    Alisertib (MLN 8237) is an orally active and selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor (IC50=1.2 nM), which binds to Aurora A kinase resulting in mitotic spindle abnormalities, mitotic accumulation. Alisertib (MLN 8237) induces apoptosis and autophagy through targeting the AKT/mTOR/AMPK/p38 pathway in leukemic cells. Antitumor activity.
  • HY-18950
    GSK2795039 Inhibitor 99.44%
    GSK2795039 is a NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor with a mean pIC50 of 6 in different cell-free assays. GSK2795039 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH consumption. GSK2795039 reduces apoptosis.
  • HY-13251
    Silvestrol Activator 98.00%
    Silvestrol is a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) inhibitor isolated from the fruits and twigs of Aglaia foveolata. Silvestrol induces autophagy and caspase-mediated apoptosis.
  • HY-15149
    Romidepsin Activator 99.98%
    Romidepsin (FK 228) is a Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with anti-tumor activities. Romidepsin (FK 228) inhibits HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC4, and HDAC6 with IC50s of 36 nM, 47 nM, 510 nM and 1.4 μM, respectively. Romidepsin (FK 228) is produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, induces cell G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis.
  • HY-16046
    Rimiducid Activator 99.81%
    Rimiducid (AP1903) is a dimerizer agent that acts by cross-linking the FKBP domains. Rimiducid (AP1903) dimerizes the Caspase 9 suicide switch and rapidly induces apoptosis.
  • HY-16591
    Birinapant Activator 99.36%
    Birinapant (TL32711), a bivalent Smac mimetic, is a potent antagonist for XIAP and cIAP1 with Kds of 45 nM and less than 1 nM, respectively. Birinapant (TL32711) induces the autoubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 in intact cells, which results in formation of a RIPK1: caspase-8 complex, caspase-8 activation, and induction of tumor cell death. Birinapant (TL32711) targets TRAF2-associated cIAPs and abrogates TNF-induced NF-κB activation.
  • HY-10029
    Nutlin (3a) Activator 98.07%
    Nutlin 3a is an active enantiomer of Nutlin-3, acts as a murine double minute (MDM2) inhibitor that inhibits MDM2-p53 interactions and stabilizes the p53 protein, and thereby induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
  • HY-B0240
    Disulfiram Inhibitor 98.67%
    Disulfiram (Tetraethylthiuram disulfide) is a specific inhibitor of aldehyde-dehydrogenase (ALDH1), used for the treatment of chronic alcoholism by producing an acute sensitivity to alcohol. Disulfiram inhibits gasdermin D (GSDMD) pore formation in liposomes and inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis and IL-1β secretion in human and mouse cells[1-4].
  • HY-15597
    Salinomycin Activator >98.0%
    Salinomycin (Procoxacin), an antibiotic potassium ionophore, is a potent inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Salinomycin (Procoxacin) acts on the Wnt/Fzd/LRP complex, blocks Wnt-induced LRP6 phosphorylation, and causes degradation of the LRP6 protein. Salinomycin (Procoxacin) shows selective activity against human cancer stem cells.
  • HY-19696A
    Tauroursodeoxycholate Sodium Inhibitor
    Tauroursodeoxycholate Sodium is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor. Tauroursodeoxycholate significantly reduces expression of apoptosis molecules, such as caspase-3 and caspase-12. Tauroursodeoxycholate also inhibits ERK.
  • HY-13433
    Thapsigargin Activator 99.00%
    Thapsigargin is an inhibitor of microsomal Ca2+-ATPase. Thapsigargin is a well characterized Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress inducing agent.
  • HY-14596
    Genistein Activator 99.68%
    Genistein, a soy isoflavone, is a multiple tyrosine kinases (e.g., EGFR) inhibitor which acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis.
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