1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. Necrotic cells are usually recognized by the immune system as a danger signal and, thus, resulting in inflammation; in contrast, apoptotic death is quiet and orderly.

There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The extrinsic or death-receptor pathway is triggered by ligation of death receptors (members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, such as Fas or TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1)) that contain an intracellular death domain, which can recruit and activate caspase-8 through the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD; also known as MORT1) at the cell surface. This recruitment causes subsequent activation of downstream (effector) caspases, such as caspase-3, -6 or -7, without any involvement of the BCL-2 family.

Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.

Apoptosis Related Products (2853):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-13259
    MG-132
    Inducer ≥98.0%
    MG-132 (Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al) is a potent proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 100 nM and 1.2 μM, respectively. MG-132 effectively blocks the proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome complex. MG-132, a peptide aldehyde, also is an autophagy activator. MG-132 also induces apoptosis.
  • HY-10108
    LY294002
    Inducer 99.92%
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitor that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an apoptosis activator.
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride
    Inducer 99.58%
    Doxorubicin (Hydroxydaunorubicin) hydrochloride, a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is a potent human DNA topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II inhibitor with IC50s of 0.8 μM and 2.67 μM, respectively. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy.
  • HY-100558
    Bafilomycin A1
    Inducer 99.43%
    Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) is a specific and reversible inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) with IC50 values of 4-400 nmol/mg. Bafilomycin A1, a macrolide antibiotic, is also used as an autophagy inhibitor at the late stage. Bafilomycin A1 blocks autophagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits acidification and protein degradation in lysosomes of cultured cells. Bafilomycin A1 induces apoptosis.
  • HY-B0015
    Paclitaxel
    Inducer 99.97%
    Paclitaxel is a naturally occurring antineoplastic agent and stabilizes tubulin polymerization. Paclitaxel can cause both mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel also induces autophagy.
  • HY-14541
    Olanzapine
    Inducer 99.89%
    Olanzapine (LY170053) is a selective, orally active monoaminergic antagonist with high affinity binding to serotonin H1, 5HT2A/2C, 5HT3, 5HT6 (Ki=7, 4, 11, 57, and 5 nM, respectively), dopamine D1-4 (Ki=11 to 31 nM), muscarinic M1-5 (Ki=1.9-25 nM), and adrenergic α1 receptor (Ki=19 nM). Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic.
  • HY-W013032A
    Oxamic acid sodium
    Inducer
    Oxamic acid (oxamate) sodium salt is a lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) inhibitor. Oxamic acid sodium salt shows anti-tumor activity, and anti-proliferative activity against cancer cells, and can induce apoptosis.
  • HY-16271
    Kevetrin hydrochloride
    Inducer ≥98.0%
    Kevetrin hydrochloride is a potent activator of p53, induces apoptosis in TP53 wild-type and mutant acute myeloid leukemia cells. Kevetrin a preferential cytotoxic activity against blast cells.
  • HY-13757A
    Tamoxifen
    Inducer 99.92%
    Tamoxifen (ICI 47699) is an orally active, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which blocks estrogen action in breast cells and can activate estrogen activity in other cells, such as bone, liver, and uterine cells. Tamoxifen is a potent Hsp90 activator and enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen also potent inhibits infectious EBOV Zaire and Marburg (MARV) with IC50 of 0.1 µM and 1.8 µM, respectively. Tamoxifen activates autophagy and induces apoptosis. Tamoxifen also can induce gene knockout of CreER(T2) transgenic mouse.
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine
    Inducer ≥98.0%
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis. Acetylcysteine also has anti-influenza virus activities.
  • HY-13948
    Angiotensin II human
    Inducer 99.96%
    Angiotensin II (Angiotensin II) is a vasoconstrictor and a major bioactive peptide of the renin/angiotensin system. Angiotensin II human plays a central role in regulating human blood pressure, which is mainly mediated by interactions between Angiotensin II and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R). Angiotensin II human stimulates sympathetic nervous stimulation, increases aldosterone biosynthesis and renal actions. Angiotensin II human induces growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, increases collagen type I and III synthesis in fibroblasts, leading to thickening of the vascular wall and myocardium, and fibrosis. Angiotensin II human also induces apoptosis. Angiotensin II induces capillary formation from endothelial cells via the LOX-1 dependent redox-sensitive pathway.
  • HY-B0988
    Deferoxamine mesylate
    Inducer 99.86%
    Deferoxamine mesylate (Deferoxamine B mesylate) is an iron chelator (binds to Fe(III) and many other metal cations), is widely used to reduce iron accumulation and deposition in tissues. Deferoxamine mesylate upregulates HIF-1α levels with good antioxidant activity. Deferoxamine mesylate also shows anti-proliferative activity, can induce apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. Deferoxamine mesylate can be used in studies of diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases as well as anti-cancer and anti-COVID-19.
  • HY-15141
    Staurosporine
    Inducer 99.98%
    Staurosporine is a potent, ATP-competitive and non-selective inhibitor of protein kinases with IC50s of 6 nM, 15 nM, 2 nM, and 3 nM for PKC, PKA, c-Fgr, and Phosphorylase kinase respectively. Staurosporine also inhibits TAOK2 with an IC50 of 3 μM. Staurosporine is an apoptosis inducer.
  • HY-13966
    2-Deoxy-D-glucose
    Inducer ≥99.0%
    2-Deoxy-D-glucose is a glucose analog that acts as a competitive inhibitor of glucose metabolism, inhibiting glycolysis via its actions on hexokinase.
  • HY-10071
    Y-27632
    Modulator 99.91%
    Y-27632 is an orally active, ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROCK-I and ROCK-II, with Kis of 220 and 300 nM, respectively. Y-27632 attenuates Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of human cardiac stem cells. Y-27632 also suppresses dissociation-induced apoptosis of murine prostate stem/progenitor cells. Y-27632 primes human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to selectively differentiate towards mesendodermal lineage via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like modulation.
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib
    Inducer 99.97%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is a reversible and selective proteasome inhibitor, and potently inhibits 20S proteasome (Ki=0.6 nM) by targeting a threonine residue. Bortezomib disrupts the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits NF-κB. Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor anticancer agent. Anti-cancer activity.
  • HY-10431
    SB-431542
    99.89%
    SB-431542 is a TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitor (TRKI). SB-431542 has inhibitory activity for ALK4, ALK5 and ALK7 with IC50 values of 1 μM, 0.75 μM and 2 μM, respectively. SB-431542 also inhibits TGF-β-induced transcription, gene expression, apoptosis, and growth suppression. SB-431542 can be used for the research of cancer and signal transduction pathways.
  • HY-90006
    5-Fluorouracil
    Inducer 99.86%
    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an analogue of uracil and a potent antitumor agent. 5-Fluorouracil affects pyrimidine synthesis by inhibiting thymidylate synthetase thus depleting intracellular dTTP pools. 5-Fluorouracil induces apoptosis and can be used as a chemical sensitizer. 5-Fluorouracil also inhibits HIV.
  • HY-10201
    Sorafenib
    Inducer 99.92%
    Sorafenib (Bay 43-9006) is a potent and orally active Raf inhibitor with IC50s of 6 nM and 20 nM for Raf-1 and B-Raf, respectively. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with IC50s of 90 nM, 15 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM and 58 nM for VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ, FLT3 and c-Kit, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis. Sorafenib has anti-tumor activity. Sorafenib is a ferroptosis activator.
  • HY-10999
    Trametinib
    Inducer 99.92%
    Trametinib (GSK1120212; JTP-74057) is an orally active MEK inhibitor that inhibits MEK1 and MEK2 with IC50s of about 2 nM. Trametinib activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.