1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. Necrotic cells are usually recognized by the immune system as a danger signal and, thus, resulting in inflammation; in contrast, apoptotic death is quiet and orderly.

There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The extrinsic or death-receptor pathway is triggered by ligation of death receptors (members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, such as Fas or TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1)) that contain an intracellular death domain, which can recruit and activate caspase-8 through the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD; also known as MORT1) at the cell surface. This recruitment causes subsequent activation of downstream (effector) caspases, such as caspase-3, -6 or -7, without any involvement of the BCL-2 family.

Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.

Apoptosis Related Products (71):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib Activator 99.97%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is an anti-cancer drug and the first proteasome inhibitor to be used in humans, which inhibits 20S proteasome by targeting a threonine residue. Bortezomib (PS-341) disrupts the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits NF-κB.
  • HY-13453
    BAY 11-7082 Activator 99.42%
    BAY 11-7082 is a NF-κB inhibitor which decreases NF-κB by inhibiting TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of IκB-α. BAY 11-7082 inhibits ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 and USP21 with IC50s of 0.19 μM and 0.96 μM, respectively.
  • HY-10971
    Alisertib Activator 99.84%
    Alisertib (MLN 8237) is an orally active and selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.2 nM, which binds to Aurora A kinase resulting in mitotic spindle abnormalities, mitotic accumulation. Alisertib (MLN 8237) induces apoptosis and autophagy through targeting the AKT/mTOR/AMPK/p38 pathway in leukemic cells. Antitumor activity.
  • HY-13251
    Silvestrol Activator 98.00%
    Silvestrol is a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) inhibitor isolated from the fruits and twigs of Aglaia foveolata.
  • HY-16591
    Birinapant Activator 99.36%
    Birinapant (TL32711), a bivalent Smac mimetic, is a potent antagonist for XIAP and cIAP1 with Kds of 45 nM and less than 1 nM, respectively. Birinapant (TL32711) binds to the BIR3 domains of cIAP1, cIAP2, XIAP, and the BIR domain of ML-IAP in vitro and induces the autoubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of cIAP1 and cIAP2 in intact cells, which results in formation of a RIPK1: caspase-8 complex, caspase-8 activation, and induction of tumor cell death. Birinapant (TL32711) preferentially targets the TRAF2-associated cIAP1 and cIAP2 with subsequent inhibition of TNF-induced NF-κB activation.
  • HY-117282
    JG-98 Activator
    JG-98, an allosteric heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) inhibitor, which binds tightly to a conserved site on Hsp70 and disrupts the Hsp70-Bag3 interaction. JG-98 shows anti-cancer activities affecting both cancer cells and tumor-associated macrophages.
  • HY-B1899A
    Taurodeoxychloic Acid sodium hydrate Inhibitor >98.0%
    Taurodeoxychloic Acid (sodium hydrate) prevents apoptosis by blocking a calcium-mediated apoptotic pathway as well as caspase-12 activation. Taurodeoxychloic Acid (sodium hydrate) is investigated for use in several conditions such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC), insulin resistance, amyloidosis, Cystic Fibrosis, Cholestasis, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
  • HY-101029
    MBM-55 Activator
    MBM-55 (compound 42g ) is a potent Nek2 inhibitor with an IC50 of 1 nM and has antitumor activities, which effectively inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
  • HY-16966
    SBI-0206965 Activator 98.76%
    SBI-0206965 is a potent, selective and cell permeable autophagy kinase ULK1 inhibitor with IC50s of 108 nM for ULK1 kinase and 711 nM for the highly related kinase ULK2 .
  • HY-19609
    Calicheamicin Activator 98.44%
    Calicheamicin is a cytotoxic agent that causes double-strand DNA breaks.
  • HY-12033
    2-Methoxyestradiol Activator 99.82%
    2-Methoxyestradiol is an angiogenesis inhibitor and apoptosis inducer with potent antineoplastic activity. 2-Methoxyestradiol also destablize microtubules.
  • HY-N0848
    Epibrassinolide Activator >98.00%
    Epibrassinolide is a natural brassinosteroid (BR) derivative, is a plant regulator with a similar structure to mammalian steroids. Epibrassinolide is a potential apoptotic inducer in various cancer cells without affecting the non-tumor cell growth.
  • HY-12040
    Elesclomol Activator 99.80%
    Elesclomol is an oxidative stress inducer that induces cancer cell apoptosis.
  • HY-10074
    TPCA-1 99.54%
    TPCA-1 is a potent and selective inhibitor of IKK-2 with IC50 of 17.9 nM. TPCA-1 is an effective inhibitor of STAT3 phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transactivation.
  • HY-18676
    OSU-T315 99.88%
    OSU-T315 (ILK-IN-1) is a small Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.6 μM, inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling by dephosphorylation of AKT-Ser473 and other ILK targets (GSK-3β and myosin light chain). OSU-T315 abrogates AKT activation by impeding AKT localization in lipid rafts and triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in an ILK-independent manner. OSU-T315 causes cell death through apoptosis and autophagy.
  • HY-15097
    Myricetin Activator 99.41%
    Myricetin is a common plant-derived flavonoid with a wide range of activities including strong anti-oxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities.
  • HY-100237
    SZL P1-41 Activator 99.18%
    SZL P1-41 is a specific Skp2 inhibitor, binds to the F-box domain of Skp2 to prevent Skp1 association and Skp2 SCF complex formation. SZL P1-41, like Skp2 deficiency, augments p27-mediated apoptosis/senescence, while it impairs Akt-driven glycolysis. Anti-tumor activities.
  • HY-50936
    Trabectedin Activator 99.83%
    Trabectedin (Ecteinascidin-743 or ET-743) is a novel antitumour agent of marine origin with potent antitumour activity both in vitro and in vivo.
  • HY-N0052A
    Sanguinarine chloride Activator 99.80%
    Sanguinarine chloride, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid derived from the root of Sanguinaria Canadensis, can stimulate apoptosis via activating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and NF-κB.
  • HY-10529
    Betulinic acid Activator 98.18%
    Betulinic acid is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid, acts as a eukaryotic topoisomerase I inhibitor, with an IC50 of 5 μM, and possesses anti-HIV, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties.
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