1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. Apoptosis

Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a distinctive form of cell death exhibiting specific morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, genomic DNA fragmentation, and exposure of specific phagocytosis signaling molecules on the cell surface. Cells undergoing apoptosis differ from those dying through necrosis. Necrotic cells are usually recognized by the immune system as a danger signal and, thus, resulting in inflammation; in contrast, apoptotic death is quiet and orderly.

There are two major pathways of apoptotic cell death induction: The intrinsic pathway, also called the Bcl-2-regulated or mitochondrial pathway, is activated by various developmental cues or cytotoxic insults, such as viral infection, DNA damage and growth-factor deprivation, and is strictly controlled by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The extrinsic or death-receptor pathway is triggered by ligation of death receptors (members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, such as Fas or TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1)) that contain an intracellular death domain, which can recruit and activate caspase-8 through the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain (FADD; also known as MORT1) at the cell surface. This recruitment causes subsequent activation of downstream (effector) caspases, such as caspase-3, -6 or -7, without any involvement of the BCL-2 family.

Studies suggest that alterations in cell survival contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Treatments designed to specifically alter the apoptotic threshold may have the potential to change the natural progression of some of these diseases.

Apoptosis Related Products (1042):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-10108
    LY294002 Activator 99.95%
    LY294002 (NSC 697286; SF 1101) is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitorr that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an autophagy and apoptosis activator.
  • HY-15142
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride Activator 99.47%
    Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride), a cytotoxic anthracycline antibiotic, is an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent. Doxorubicin hydrochloride inhibits topoisomerase II, thus stopping DNA replication. Doxorubicin hydrochloride reduces basal phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces apoptosis and autophagy.
  • HY-B0015
    Paclitaxel Activator 99.97%
    Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a naturally occurring antineoplastic agent and stabilizes tubulin polymerization. Paclitaxel can cause both mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. Tubulin depolymerization inhibitor.
  • HY-10583
    Y-27632 dihydrochloride Activator 99.83%
    Y-27632 dihydrochloride is an orally active, ATP-competitive inhibitor of ROCK-I and ROCK-II, with Kis of 220 and 300 nM, respectively. Y-27632 dihydrochloride induces apoptosis. Y-27632 dihydrochloride primes human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to selectively differentiate towards mesendodermal lineage via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like modulation.
  • HY-12041
    SP600125 Activator 98.82%
    SP600125 is an orally active, reversible, and ATP-competitive JNK inhibitor with IC50s of 40, 40 and 90 nM for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3, respectively. SP600125 is a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. SP600125 inhibits autophagy and activates apoptosis.
  • HY-130250
    SR-4835 Activator 98.46%
    SR-4835 is a potent, highly selective and ATP competitive dual inhibitor of CDK12/CDK13 (CDK12: IC50=99 nM, Kd=98 nM; CDK13: Kd=4.9 nM). SR-4835 acts in synergy with DNA-damaging chemotherapy and PARP inhibitors and provokes triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell death.
  • HY-120394
    TVB-3166 Activator 99.55%
    TVB-3166 is an orally-available, reversible, and selective fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor with IC50s of 42 nM and 81 nM for biochemical FASN and cellular palmitate synthesis, respectively. TVB-3166 induces apoptosis, and inhibits in-vivo xenograft tumor growth.
  • HY-122903
    TK216 Inhibitor 99.66%
    TK216 is a potent E26 transformation specific (ETS) inhibitor. TK216 directly binds EWS-FLI1 and inhibits EWS-FLI1 protein interactions. TK216 blocks the binding between EWS-FLI1 and RNA helicase A. TK216 has anticancer activity.
  • HY-10201
    Sorafenib Activator 99.92%
    Sorafenib (Bay 43-9006) is a potent and orally active Raf inhibitor with IC50s of 6 nM and 20 nM for Raf-1 and B-Raf, respectively. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor with IC50s of 90 nM, 15 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM and 58 nM for VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ, FLT3 and c-Kit, respectively. Sorafenib has anti-tumor activity). Raf Inhibitor.
  • HY-13948
    Angiotensin II human Activator 99.96%
    Angiotensin II human (Angiotensin II) is a vasoconstrictor that mainly acts on the AT1 receptor. Angiotensin II human stimulates sympathetic nervous stimulation, increases aldosterone biosynthesis and renal actions. Angiotensin II human induces growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, increases collagen type I and III synthesis in fibroblasts, leading to thickening of the vascular wall and myocardium, and fibrosis. Angiotensin Receptor Modulator.
  • HY-90006
    5-Fluorouracil Activator 99.86%
    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is an analogue of uracil and a potent antitumor agent. 5-Fluorouracil affects pyrimidine synthesis by inhibiting thymidylate synthetase thus depleting intracellular dTTP pools. 5-Fluorouracil induces apoptosis and can be used as a chemical sensitizer. Nucleoside Antimetabolite/Analog.
  • HY-10999
    Trametinib Activator 99.44%
    Trametinib (GSK1120212; JTP-74057) is an orally active MEK inhibitor that inhibits MEK1 and MEK2 with IC50s of about 2 nM. Trametinib activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.
  • HY-13757A
    Tamoxifen Activator 99.95%
    Tamoxifen (ICI 47699) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which blocks estrogen action in breast cells and can activate estrogen activity in other cells, such as bone, liver, and uterine cells.Tamoxifen is a potent Hsp90 activator and enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.
  • HY-10227
    Bortezomib Activator 99.97%
    Bortezomib (PS-341) is a reversible and selective proteasome inhibitor, and potently inhibits 20S proteasome (Ki=0.6 nM) by targeting a threonine residue. Bortezomib disrupts the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, and inhibits NF-κB. Bortezomib is the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be used in humans. Anti-cancer activity.
  • HY-16749
    Pexidartinib Activator 99.64%
    Pexidartinib (PLX-3397) is a potent, orally active, selective, and ATP-competitive colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R or M-CSFR) and c-Kit inhibitor, with IC50s of 20 and 10 nM, respectively. Pexidartinib (PLX-3397) exhibits 10- to 100-fold selectivity for c-Kit and CSF1R over other related kinases. Pexidartinib (PLX-3397) induces cell apoptosis and has anti-tumor activity
  • HY-13453
    BAY 11-7082 Activator 99.42%
    BAY 11-7082 is an IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB inhibitor. BAY 11-7082 selectively and irreversibly inhibits the TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of IκB-α, and decreases NF-κB and expression of adhesion molecules. BAY 11-7082 inhibits ubiquitin-specific protease USP7 and USP21 (IC50=0.19, 0.96 μM, respectively). BAY 11-7082 inhibits gasdermin D (GSDMD) pore formation in liposomes and inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis and IL-1β secretion in human and mouse cells.
  • HY-17026
    Gemcitabine Activator 99.92%
    Gemcitabine (LY 188011) is a pyrimidine nucleoside analog antimetabolite and an antineoplastic agent. Gemcitabine inhibits DNA synthesis and repair, resulting in apoptosis. Gemcitabine inhibits the growth of BxPC-3, Mia Paca-2, PANC-1, PL-45 and AsPC-1 cells with IC50s of 37.6 nM, 42.9 nM, 92.7 nM, 89.3 nM and 131.4 nM, respectively. Nucleoside Antimetabolite/Analog.
  • HY-A0004
    Decitabine Activator 99.99%
    Decitabine (NSC 127716) is a deoxycytidine analogue antimetabolite and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Decitabine incorporates into DNA in place of cytosine can covalently trap DNA methyltransferase to DNA causing irreversible inhibition of the enzyme. Decitabine induces cell G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis. Decitabine has potent anticancer activity. DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor.
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine Activator >98.0%
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetyl-L-cysteine; LNAC; NAC) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis.
  • HY-17364
    Temozolomide Activator 99.96%
    Temozolomide (NSC 362856) is an oral active DNA alkylating agent that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Temozolomide is also a proautophagic and proapoptotic agent. Temozolomide is effective against tumor cells that are characterized by low levels of O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (OGAT) and a functional mismatch repair system. Temozolomide has antitumor and antiangiogenic effects.DNA Alkylator.
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