1. Apoptosis
  2. TNF-alpha


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of apoptosis as well as inflammation and immunity, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of human diseases, including sepsis, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases.

TNF-α is a 17-kDa protein consisting of 157 amino acids that is a homotrimer in solution. In humans, the gene is mapped to chromosome 6. Its bioactivity is mainly regulated by soluble TNF-α–binding receptors. TNF-α is mainly produced by activated macrophages, T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Lower expression is known for a variety of other cells, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and tumor cells. In cells, TNF-α is synthesized as pro-TNF (26 kDa), which is membrane-bound and is released upon cleavage of its pro domain by TNF-converting enzyme (TACE).

Many of the TNF-induced cellular responses are mediated by either one of the two TNF receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, both of which belong to the TNF receptor super-family. In response to TNF treatment, the transcription factor NF-κB and MAP kinases, including ERK, p38 and JNK, are activated in most types of cells and, in some cases, apoptosis or necrosis could also be induced. However, induction of apoptosis or necrosis is mainly achieved through TNFR1, which is also known as a death receptor. Activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs plays an important role in the induction of many cytokines and immune-regulatory proteins and is pivotal for many inflammatory responses.

TNF-alpha Related Products (35):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-A0003
    Lenalidomide Inhibitor 99.98%
    Lenalidomide is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α and has antiangiogenic effect.
  • HY-10984
    Pomalidomide Inhibitor >99.0%
    Pomalidomide is a known inhibitor of TNF-α release in LPS stimulated human PBMC with IC50 of 13 nM.
  • HY-N0822
    Shikonin Inhibitor 99.64%
    Shikonin is an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. Shikonin is also a specific inhibitor of PKM2 and can also inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prevent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway.
  • HY-15615A
    TIC10 Agonist 99.68%
    TIC10 is a potent, orally active, and stable TRAIL inducer, also inhibits Akt and ERK activity.
  • HY-13812
    QNZ Inhibitor 99.00%
    QNZ shows strong inhibitory effects on NF-κB transcriptional activation andTNF-α production with IC50s of 11 and 7 nM, respectively. EVP4593 is a neuroprotective inhibitor of SOC channel.
  • HY-N0182
    Fisetin >98.0%
    Fisetin is a natural flavonol found in many fruits and vegetables with various benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotection effects.
  • HY-A0203
    Pentosan Polysulfate >98.0%
    Pentosan polysulfate is a potent and selective HIV inhibitor.
  • HY-107390A
    AX-024 hydrochloride Inhibitor 99.29%
    AX-024 hydrochloride is an cytokine release inhibitor which can strongly inhibit the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17A.
  • HY-A0003B
    Lenalidomide hemihydrate Inhibitor 99.82%
    Lenalidomide hemihydrate is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α and has antiangiogenic effect.
  • HY-14622
    Necrostatin 2 Inhibitor 99.89%
    Necrostatin 2 is a potent necroptosis inhibitor. EC50 for inhibition of necroptosis in FADD-deficient Jurkat T cells treated with TNF-α is 0.05 μM.
  • HY-14622A
    Necrostatin 2 racemate Inhibitor 99.10%
    Necrostatin 2 is a potent necroptosis inhibitor with EC50 of 50 nM.
  • HY-15643A
    LY 303511 hydrochloride Activator 98.41%
    LY 303511 hydrochloride is a structural analogue of LY294002. LY303511 does not inhibit PI3K. LY303511 enhances TRAIL sensitivity of SHEP-1 neuroblastoma cells. LY303511 reversibly blocks K+ currents (IC50=64.6±9.1 μM) in MIN6 insulinoma cells.
  • HY-32018
    Cot inhibitor-2 Inhibitor 99.20%
    Cot inhibitor-2 is a COT/Tpl2 inhibitor.
  • HY-100735
    C 87 Inhibitor >98.0%
    C87 is a novel small-molecule TNFα inhibitor; potently inhibits TNFα-induced cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 8.73 μM.
  • HY-N2027
    Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Inhibitor 99.80%
    Taurochenodeoxycholic acid is one of the main bioactive substances of animals' bile acid.
  • HY-N0724
    Mesaconitine Inhibitor 99.55%
    Mesaconitine is the main active component of genus aconitum plants.
  • HY-N0297
    Sinensetin Inhibitor 99.22%
    Sinensetin is a methylated flavone found in certain citrus fruits. pocess potent antiangiogenesis and anti-inflammatory, sinensetin enhances adipogenesis and lipolysis.
  • HY-P0224
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe Inhibitor 99.36%
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP; N-Formyl-MLF) is a chemotactic peptide and a specific ligand of N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR). N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Ph is reported to inhibit TNF-alpha secretion.
  • HY-N1949
    Homoplantaginin Inhibitor 99.81%
    Homoplantaginin is a flavonoid from a traditional Chinese medicine Salvia plebeia with antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Homoplantaginin could inhibit TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression, IKKβ and NF-κB phosphorylation.
  • HY-19717
    DCVC Inhibitor 99.89%
    DCVC inhibits pathogen-stimulated TNF-α in human extra placental membranes in vitro.