1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. TNF Receptor

TNF Receptor

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major mediator of apoptosis as well as inflammation and immunity, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of human diseases, including sepsis, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases.

TNF-α is a 17-kDa protein consisting of 157 amino acids that is a homotrimer in solution. In humans, the gene is mapped to chromosome 6. Its bioactivity is mainly regulated by soluble TNF-α–binding receptors. TNF-α is mainly produced by activated macrophages, T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Lower expression is known for a variety of other cells, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and tumor cells. In cells, TNF-α is synthesized as pro-TNF (26 kDa), which is membrane-bound and is released upon cleavage of its pro domain by TNF-converting enzyme (TACE).

Many of the TNF-induced cellular responses are mediated by either one of the two TNF receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, both of which belong to the TNF receptor super-family. In response to TNF treatment, the transcription factor NF-κB and MAP kinases, including ERK, p38 and JNK, are activated in most types of cells and, in some cases, apoptosis or necrosis could also be induced. However, induction of apoptosis or necrosis is mainly achieved through TNFR1, which is also known as a death receptor. Activation of the NF-κB and MAPKs plays an important role in the induction of many cytokines and immune-regulatory proteins and is pivotal for many inflammatory responses.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-N0822
    Shikonin Inhibitor 99.80%
    Shikonin is a major component of a Chinese herbal medicine named zicao. Shikonin has shown various biological activities, including inhibition of TNF-α, NF-κB, HIV-1.
  • HY-15615A
    TIC10 Agonist 99.68%
    TIC10 is a potent, orally active, and stable TRAIL inducer which acts by inhibiting Akt and ERK, consequently activating Foxo3a and significantly inducing cell surface TRAIL .
  • HY-13812
    QNZ Inhibitor 98.46%
    QNZ (EVP4593) shows strong inhibitory effects on NF-κB transcriptional activation and TNF-α production with IC50s of 11 and 7 nM, respectively. QNZ (EVP4593) is a neuroprotective inhibitor of SOC channel.
  • HY-N0182
    Fisetin Inhibitor 98.02%
    Fisetin is a natural flavonol found in many fruits and vegetables with various benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotection effects.
  • HY-P0224
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe Inhibitor 99.46%
    N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP; N-Formyl-MLF) is a chemotactic peptide and a specific ligand of N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR). N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Ph is reported to inhibit TNF-alpha secretion.
  • HY-P9908
    Adalimumab Inhibitor 98.12%
    Adalimumab is a human monoclonal IgG1 antibody targeting tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α).
  • HY-111255
    SPD304 Inhibitor >99.0%
    SPD304 is a selective inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and promotes dissociation of TNF trimers and therefore blocks the interaction of TNF and its receptor, with an IC50 of 22 µM for inhibiting in vitro TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) binding to TNF-α. SPD304 cannot be used in vivo due to its high toxicity.
  • HY-108847
    Etanercept Inhibitor
    Etanercept is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor used for treating rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and plaque psoriasis.
  • HY-N2027
    Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Inhibitor 99.80%
    Taurochenodeoxycholic acid is one of the main bioactive substances of animals' bile acid.
  • HY-110203
    R-7050 Antagonist 98.83%
    R-7050 is a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) antagonist with greater selectivity toward TNFα.
  • HY-107390A
    AX-024 hydrochloride Inhibitor 99.29%
    AX-024 hydrochloride is an cytokine release inhibitor which can strongly inhibit the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17A.
  • HY-100735
    C 87 Inhibitor >98.0%
    C87 is a novel small-molecule TNFα inhibitor; potently inhibits TNFα-induced cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 8.73 μM.
  • HY-N0604
    Ginsenoside Rh1 Inhibitor 98.17%
    Ginsenoside Rh1 (Prosapogenin A2; Sanchinoside B2; Sanchinoside Rh1) is isolated from the root of Panax Ginseng. Ginsenoside Rh1 inhibits the expression of PPAR-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β.
  • HY-N0029
    Forsythoside B 99.99%
    Forsythoside B is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata Kudo, a Chinese folk medicinal plant for treating inflammatory diseases and promoting blood circulation. Forsythoside B could inhibit TNF-alpha, IL-6, IκB and modulate NF-κB.
  • HY-A0203
    Pentosan Polysulfate >98.0%
    Pentosan Polysulfate is a semi-synthetic drug used to treat various medical conditions including thrombi and interstitial cystitis.
  • HY-N0297
    Sinensetin Inhibitor 99.34%
    Sinensetin is a methylated flavone found in certain citrus fruits.
  • HY-N0722
    Neochlorogenic acid Inhibitor 99.46%
    Neochlorogenic acid is a natural polyphenolic compound found in dried fruits and other plants. Neochlorogenic acid inhibits the production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Neochlorogenic acid suppresses iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Neochlorogenic acid also inhibits phosphorylated NF-κB p65 and p38 MAPK activation.
  • HY-N0509
    Astilbin Inhibitor 99.43%
    Astilbin, a flavonoid compound, is isolated from the rhizome of Smilax glabra. Astilbin enhances NRF2 activation. Astilbin also suppresses TNF-α expression and NF-κB activation.
  • HY-107390
    AX-024 Inhibitor >98.0%
    AX-024 is an cytokine release inhibitor which can strongly inhibit the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17A.
  • HY-N1949
    Homoplantaginin Inhibitor 99.81%
    Homoplantaginin is a flavonoid from a traditional Chinese medicine Salvia plebeia with antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Homoplantaginin could inhibit TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression, IKKβ and NF-κB phosphorylation.

Following the binding of TNF to TNF receptors, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I; TNFR2 binds to TRAF1/2 directly to recruit cIAP1/2. Both cIAP1 and cIAP2 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that add K63 linked polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1 and other components of the signaling complex. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the cIAPs is needed to recruit the LUBAC, which adds M1 linked linear polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1. K63 polyubiquitylated RIPK1 recruits TAB2, TAB3 and TAK1, which activate signaling mediated by JNK and p38, as well as the IκB kinase complex. The IKK complex then activates NF-κB signaling, which leads to the transcription of anti-apoptotic factors-such as FLIP and Bcl-XL-that promote cell survival. 

 

The formation of TNFR1 complex IIa and complex IIb depends on non-ubiquitylated RIPK1. For the formation of complex IIa, ubiquitylated RIPK1 in complex I is deubiquitylated by CYLD. This deubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from the membrane-bound complex and moves into the cytosol, where it interacts with TRADD, FADD, Pro-caspase 8 and FLIPL to form complex IIa. By contrast, complex IIb is formed when the RIPK1 in complex I is not ubiquitylated owing to conditions that have resulted in the depletion of cIAPs, which normally ubiquitylate RIPK1. This non-ubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from complex I, moves into the cytosol, and assembles with FADD, Pro-caspase 8, FLIPL and RIPK3 (but not TRADD) to form complex IIb. For either complex IIa or complex IIb to prevent necroptosis, both RIPK1 and RIPK3 must be inactivated by the cleavage activity of the Pro-caspase 8-FLIPL heterodimer or fully activated caspase 8. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer generates active Caspase 8, which is released from complex IIa and complex IIb. This active Caspase 8 then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis. 

 

Formation of the complex IIc (necrosome) is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs, similar to complex IIa and complex IIb formation. RIPK1 recruits numerous RIPK3 molecules. They come together to form amyloid microfilaments called necrosomes. Activated RIPK3 phosphorylates and recruits MLKL, eventually leading to the formation of a supramolecular protein complex at the plasma membrane and necroptosis [1][2].

 

Reference:
[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 
 

Targets/MCE-TNF-Receptor-Signaling-Pathway.png

Following the binding of TNF to TNF receptors, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I; TNFR2 binds to TRAF1/2 directly to recruit cIAP1/2. Both cIAP1 and cIAP2 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that add K63 linked polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1 and other components of the signaling complex. The ubiquitin ligase activity of the cIAPs is needed to recruit the LUBAC, which adds M1 linked linear polyubiquitin chains to RIPK1. K63 polyubiquitylated RIPK1 recruits TAB2, TAB3 and TAK1, which activate signaling mediated by JNK and p38, as well as the IκB kinase complex. The IKK complex then activates NF-κB signaling, which leads to the transcription of anti-apoptotic factors-such as FLIP and Bcl-XL-that promote cell survival. 

 

The formation of TNFR1 complex IIa and complex IIb depends on non-ubiquitylated RIPK1. For the formation of complex IIa, ubiquitylated RIPK1 in complex I is deubiquitylated by CYLD. This deubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from the membrane-bound complex and moves into the cytosol, where it interacts with TRADD, FADD, Pro-caspase 8 and FLIPL to form complex IIa. By contrast, complex IIb is formed when the RIPK1 in complex I is not ubiquitylated owing to conditions that have resulted in the depletion of cIAPs, which normally ubiquitylate RIPK1. This non-ubiquitylated RIPK1 dissociates from complex I, moves into the cytosol, and assembles with FADD, Pro-caspase 8, FLIPL and RIPK3 (but not TRADD) to form complex IIb. For either complex IIa or complex IIb to prevent necroptosis, both RIPK1 and RIPK3 must be inactivated by the cleavage activity of the Pro-caspase 8-FLIPL heterodimer or fully activated caspase 8. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer generates active Caspase 8, which is released from complex IIa and complex IIb. This active Caspase 8 then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis. 

 

Formation of the complex IIc (necrosome) is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs, similar to complex IIa and complex IIb formation. RIPK1 recruits numerous RIPK3 molecules. They come together to form amyloid microfilaments called necrosomes. Activated RIPK3 phosphorylates and recruits MLKL, eventually leading to the formation of a supramolecular protein complex at the plasma membrane and necroptosis [1][2].

 

Reference:
[1]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die.Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74. 
[2]. Conrad M, et al. Regulated necrosis: disease relevance and therapeutic opportunities.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 May;15(5):348-66. 
 

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