1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Apoptosis
  3. Caspase

Caspase

Caspase is a family of cysteine proteases that play essential roles in apoptosis (programmed cell death), necrosis, and inflammation. There are two types of apoptotic caspases: initiator (apical) caspases and effector (executioner) caspases. Initiator caspases (e.g., CASP2, CASP8, CASP9, and CASP10) cleave inactive pro-forms of effector caspases, thereby activating them. Effector caspases (e.g., CASP3, CASP6, CASP7) in turn cleave other protein substrates within the cell, to trigger the apoptotic process. The initiation of this cascade reaction is regulated by caspase inhibitors. CASP4 and CASP5, which are overexpressed in some cases of vitiligo and associated autoimmune diseases caused by NALP1 variants, are not currently classified as initiator or effector in MeSH, because they are inflammatory enzymes that, in concert with CASP1, are involved in T-cell maturation.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-16658B
    Z-VAD-FMK
    Inhibitor 98.75%
    Z-VAD-FMK (Z-VAD(OH)-FMK) is a well-know pan caspase inhibitor, which does not inhibit ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) activity even at concentrations as high as 440 μM.
  • HY-16658
    Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK
    Inhibitor 98.20%
    Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK (Z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-FMK) is a cell-permeable and irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor. Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK is an ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) inhibitor. Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK irreversibly modifies UCHL1 by targeting the active site of UCHL1.
  • HY-12305
    Q-VD-OPh
    Inhibitor 99.78%
    Q-VD-OPh is an irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor with potent antiapoptotic properties; inhibits caspase 7 with an IC50 of 48 nM and 25-400 nM for other caspases including caspase 1, 3, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Q-VD-OPh can inhibits HIV infection. Q-VD-OPh is able to cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • HY-12466
    Z-DEVD-FMK
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Z-DEVD-FMK is a specific and irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor with an IC50 of 18 μM.
  • HY-13205
    Belnacasan
    Inhibitor 99.99%
    Belnacasan (VX-765) is an orally bioactive prodrug of VRT-043198, which is a potent and selective inhibitor of IL-converting enzyme (ICE)/caspase-1 with Kis of 0.8 nM and less than 0.6 nM for caspase-1 and caspase-4, respectively. Belnacasan (VX-765) inhibits the release of LPS-induced IL-1β and IL-18 by human PBMCs with an IC50 of ~0.7 μM.
  • HY-W016412
    Coenzyme Q0
    Inducer
    Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) is a potent, oral active ubiquinone compound can be derived from Antrodia cinnamomea. Coenzyme Q0 induces apoptosis and autophagy, suppresses of HER-2/AKT/mTOR signaling to potentiate the apoptosis and autophagy mechanisms. Coenzyme Q0 regulates NFκB/AP-1 activation and enhances Nrf2 stabilization in attenuation of inflammation and redox imbalance. Coenzyme Q0 has anti-angiogenic activity through downregulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and upregulation of HO-1 signaling.
  • HY-119272
    EF24
    Activator 99.78%
    EF24 is a curcumin analogue with greater anti-tumor efficacy and oral bioavailability via deactivation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). EF24 treatment increases the levels of activated caspase 3 and 9, and decreases the phosphorylated forms of MEK1 and ERK.
  • HY-108312A
    AC-VEID-CHO TFA
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    AC-VEID-CHO (TFA) is a peptide-derived caspase inhibitor and has potency of inhibition for Caspase-6, Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 with IC50 values of 16.2 nM, 13.6 nM and 162.1 nM, respectively. AC-VEID-CHO (TFA) can be used for the research of neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease.
  • HY-10396
    Emricasan
    Inhibitor 99.59%
    Emricasan (PF 03491390) is an orally active and irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor. Emricasan inhibits Zika virus (ZIKV)-induced increases in caspase-3 activity and protected human cortical neural progenitors.
  • HY-14654
    Aspirin
    Activator 99.66%
    Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) is an orally active, potent and irreversible inhibitor of cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2, with IC50 values of 5 and 210 μg/mL, respectively. Aspirin induces apoptosis. Aspirin inhibits the activation of NF-κB. Aspirin also inhibits platelet prostaglandin synthetase, and can prevent coronary artery and cerebrovascular thrombosis.
  • HY-101297
    Z-IETD-FMK
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Z-IETD-FMK (Z-IE(OMe)TD(OMe)-FMK) is a selective and cell permeable caspase-8 inhibitor. Z-IETD-FMK is also a granzyme B inhibitor.
  • HY-19696
    Tauroursodeoxycholate
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Tauroursodeoxycholate (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor. Tauroursodeoxycholate significantly reduces expression of apoptosis molecules, such as caspase-3 and caspase-12. Tauroursodeoxycholate also inhibits ERK.
  • HY-B1081A
    Oxidopamine hydrobromide
    Activator 99.95%
    Oxidopamine (6-OHDA) hydrobromide is an antagonist of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Oxidopamine hydrobromide is a widely used neurotoxin and selectively destroys dopaminergic neurons. Oxidopamine hydrobromide promotes COX-2 activation, leading to PGE2 synthesis and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β secretion. Oxidopamine hydrobromide can be used for the research of Parkinson’s disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.
  • HY-P1001
    Ac-DEVD-CHO
    Inhibitor
    Ac-DEVD-CHO is a specific Caspase-3 inhibitor with a Ki value of 230 pM.
  • HY-19696A
    Tauroursodeoxycholate sodium
    Inhibitor 98.63%
    Tauroursodeoxycholate (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid; TUDCA) sodium is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor. Tauroursodeoxycholate significantly reduces expression of apoptosis molecules, such as caspase-3 and caspase-12. Tauroursodeoxycholate also inhibits ERK.
  • HY-B1081
    Oxidopamine hydrochloride
    Activator 99.91%
    Oxidopamine (6-OHDA) hydrochloride is an antagonist of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Oxidopamine hydrochloride is a widely used neurotoxin and selectively destroys dopaminergic neurons. Oxidopamine hydrochloride promotes COX-2 activation, leading to PGE2 synthesis and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β secretion. Oxidopamine hydrochloride can be used for the research of Parkinson’s disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.
  • HY-N0551
    Wedelolactone
    Inhibitor 99.91%
    Wedelolactone suppresses LPS-induced caspase-11 expression by directly inhibits the IKK Complex. Wedelolactone also inhibits 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) with an IC50 of 2.5 μM. Wedelolactone induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of PKCε without inhibiting Akt. Wedelolactone can extract from Wedelia chinensis and Eclipta alba, and it can be used for the research of cancer.
  • HY-107738
    Guggulsterone
    Activator 99.83%
    Guggulsterone is a plant sterol derived from the gum resin of the tree Commiphora wightii. Guggulsterone inhibits the growth of a wide variety of tumor cells and induces apoptosis through down regulation of antiapoptotic gene products (IAP1, xIAP, Bfl-1/A1, Bcl-2, cFLIP and survivin), modulation of cell cycle proteins (cyclin D1 and c-Myc), activation of caspases and JNK, inhibition of Akt. Guggulsterone, a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist, decreases CDCA-induced FXR activation with IC50s of 17 and 15 μM for Z- and E-Guggulsterone, respectively.
  • HY-P1009
    Z-YVAD-FMK
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Z-YVAD-FMK is a cell-permeable caspase-1 and -4 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities.
  • HY-B1193
    Terfenadine
    Activator 99.88%
    Terfenadine ((±)-Terfenadine) is a potent open-channel blocker of hERG with an IC50 of 204 nM. Terfenadine, an H1 histamine receptor antagonist, acts as a potent apoptosis inducer in melanoma cells through modulation of Ca2+ homeostasis. Terfenadine induces ROS-dependent apoptosis, simultaneously activates Caspase-4, -2, -9.

Upon binding to their cognate ligand, death receptors such as Fas and TRAILR can activate initiator Caspases (Pro-caspase 8 and Pro-caspase 10) through dimerization mediated by adaptor proteins such as FADD and TRADD. Active Caspase 8 and Caspase 10 then cleave and activate the effector Caspase 3, 6 and 7, leading to apoptosis. ROS/DNA damage and ER stress trigger Caspase 2 activation. Active Caspase 2 cleaves and activates Caspase 3 and initiates apoptosis directly. Caspase 2, 8 and 10 can also cleave Bid, stimulate mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and initiate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Following MOMP, mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins such as Smac and Cytochrome C are released into the cytosol. Cytochrome C interacts with Apaf-1, triggering apoptosome assembly, which activates Caspase 9. Active Caspase 9, in turn, activates Caspase 3, 6 and 7, leading to apoptosis. Mitochondrial release of Smac facilitates apoptosis by blocking the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. 

 

Following the binding of TNF to TNFR1, TNFR1 binds to TRADD, which recruits RIPK1, TRAF2/5 and cIAP1/2 to form TNFR1 signaling complex I. Formation of the complex IIa and complex IIb is initiated either by RIPK1 deubiquitylation mediated by CYLD or by RIPK1 non-ubiquitylation due to depletion of cIAPs. The Pro-caspase 8 homodimer in complex IIa and complex IIb generates active Caspase 8. This active Caspase 8 in the cytosol then carries out cleavage reactions to activate downstream executioner caspases and thus induce classical apoptosis[1][2]

 

Reference:

[1]. Thomas C, et al. Caspases in retinal ganglion cell death and axon regeneration. Cell Death Discovery volume 3, Article number: 17032 (2017).
[2]. Brenner D, et al. Regulation of tumour necrosis factor signalling: live or let die. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jun;15(6):362-74.

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