1. MAPK/ERK Pathway Stem Cell/Wnt Apoptosis Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
  2. ERK Caspase Endogenous Metabolite Apoptosis
  3. Tauroursodeoxycholate

Tauroursodeoxycholate  (Synonyms: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid; TUDCA; UR 906)

Cat. No.: HY-19696 Purity: 99.91%
COA Handling Instructions

Tauroursodeoxycholate (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor. Tauroursodeoxycholate significantly reduces expression of apoptosis molecules, such as caspase-3 and caspase-12. Tauroursodeoxycholate also inhibits ERK.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Tauroursodeoxycholate Chemical Structure

Tauroursodeoxycholate Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 14605-22-2

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Solid + Solvent
10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO
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Customer Review

Based on 59 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

56 Publications Citing Use of MCE Tauroursodeoxycholate

WB

    Tauroursodeoxycholate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: BMC Mol Cell Biol. 2023 Mar 3;24(1):7.  [Abstract]

    Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA; 2 mM) not only suppresses the expression of RPL11-induced ERS-related proteins but also markedly mitigates the expression of LC3-II and BECN1 and increases the expression of p62 in RPL11-overexpressing NSCLC cells.

    Tauroursodeoxycholate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 May 24;154:278-292.  [Abstract]

    TUDCA treatment inhibits the secretion of active IL-1β into cell culture media by Acetaminophen (APAP).

    Tauroursodeoxycholate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Aug;32(4):363-377.  [Abstract]

    Effect of TUDCA and Fluoxetine on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced increase in Iba-1 protein expression in mice hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    • Customer Review

    Description

    Tauroursodeoxycholate (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor. Tauroursodeoxycholate significantly reduces expression of apoptosis molecules, such as caspase-3 and caspase-12. Tauroursodeoxycholate also inhibits ERK.

    IC50 & Target[1][2]

    ERK

     

    Caspase-3

     

    Caspase-12

     

    Human Endogenous Metabolite

     

    In Vitro

    Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) suppresses both viability and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, by induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) via PKCα. Tauroursodeoxycholate inhibits both the proliferation and migration of VSMCs via inhibition of ERK, through Ca2+-dependent PKCα translocation. Tauroursodeoxycholate prevents platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular injury-induced MMP-9 expression. The knock-down of MKP-1 using specific si-RNA restores the reduced VSMC viability by Tauroursodeoxycholate (200 μM), which suggests that anti-proliferative effect of Tauroursodeoxycholate depended on the MKP-1 expression[1].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    In Vivo

    The effects of Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) on proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs in vivo are examined using immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Tauroursodeoxycholate (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) increases the caspase 3 activity of injured tissues in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that Tauroursodeoxycholate induces apoptosis of VSMCs in the neointima. Using the injured tissues, further examination and comparison of the phosphorylation level of ERK and MMP-9 expression is performed at 1 week after injury, compared with normal controls. Balloon injury increased both the phosphorylation of ERK and the expression of MMP-9 in the tissues. Tauroursodeoxycholate (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) inhibits phosphorylation of ERK and MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner[1]. Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid. Tauroursodeoxycholate as a cytoprotective agent improves liver function and can prevent hepatocellular carcinoma by reducing ER stress and apoptosis. Tauroursodeoxycholate significantly reduces the expression of apoptosis molecules, such as caspase-3, caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), X-box binding protein (XBP), and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in Ang II-induced ApoE-/- mice (p<0.05). Tauroursodeoxycholate reduces Angiotensin (Ang) II induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)? formation in ApoE-/- mice. Tauroursodeoxycholate is used at a dose of 0.5 g/kg/day in treating Ang II-induced ApoE-/- mice (ER stress inhibitor group). Systolic blood pressure (141.3±5.6 mmHg vs 145.9±8.9 mmHg; p>0.05) and total cholesterol levels (663.6±88.7 mg/dL vs 655.7±65.4 mg/dL; p>0 .05) do not differ between the AAA model group and Tauroursodeoxycholate group. In addition, the maximum aortic diameter is significantly smaller in those in the Tauroursodeoxycholate group compared with those in the AAA model group (0.95±0.03 mm vs 1.79±0.04 mm; p<0.05). AAA lesion areas are also smaller in those in Tauroursodeoxycholate group than in those in the AAA model group (0.37±0.03 mm2 vs 1.51±0.06 mm2; p<0.05)[2].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Clinical Trial
    Molecular Weight

    499.70

    Formula

    C26H45NO6S

    CAS No.
    Appearance

    Solid

    Color

    White to off-white

    SMILES

    C[C@H](CCC(NCCS(=O)(O)=O)=O)[C@H]1CC[C@@]2([H])[C@]3([H])[C@@H](O)C[C@]4([H])C[C@H](O)CC[C@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])CC[C@]12C

    Structure Classification
    Initial Source
    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

    Storage
    Powder -20°C 3 years
    4°C 2 years
    In solvent -80°C 6 months
    -20°C 1 month
    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : 50 mg/mL (100.06 mM; Need ultrasonic; Hygroscopic DMSO has a significant impact on the solubility of product, please use newly opened DMSO)

    H2O : 25 mg/mL (50.03 mM; ultrasonic and warming and heat to 60°C)

    Preparing
    Stock Solutions
    Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 2.0012 mL 10.0060 mL 20.0120 mL
    5 mM 0.4002 mL 2.0012 mL 4.0024 mL
    View the Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 6 months. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 month.

    * Note: If you choose water as the stock solution, please dilute it to the working solution, then filter and sterilize it with a 0.22 μm filter before use.

    • Molarity Calculator

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    Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

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    Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

    This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

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    In Vivo:

    For the following dissolution methods, please prepare the working solution directly. It is recommended to prepare fresh solutions and use them promptly within a short period of time.
    The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

    • Protocol 1

      Add each solvent one by one:  PBS

      Solubility: 100 mg/mL (200.12 mM); Clear solution; Need ultrasonic

    In Vivo Dissolution Calculator
    Please enter the basic information of animal experiments:

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    Recommended: Prepare an additional quantity of animals to account for potential losses during experiments.
    Calculation results:
    Working solution concentration: mg/mL
    This product has good water solubility, please refer to the measured solubility data in water/PBS/Saline for details.
    The concentration of the stock solution you require exceeds the measured solubility. The following solution is for reference only.If necessary, please contact MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Purity & Documentation

    Purity: 99.91%

    References
    Cell Assay
    [1]

    Cell viability and proliferation are measured using Ez-Cytox. VSMCs (5×103 cells) are seeded onto 96-well plates in Smooth Muscle Cell Growth Medium 2 (SMCGM2) and cultured. After serum starvation, Tauroursodeoxycholate (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) is added to the hVSMCs, with or without 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA, 10 μM) and 7-hydroxystaurosporine (H7, 10 μM) and cultured for 24 h. To assess the effect of Tauroursodeoxycholate on the PDGF-stimulated hVSMC proliferation, hVSMCs are seeded onto 96-well plates and cultured. After serum starvation, Tauroursodeoxycholate (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) is added to the hVSMCs, with or without PDGF-BB (50 ng/mL) and cultured. After addition of 10 μL of Ez-Cytox into each well, cell viability is evaluated by measuring the optical density at 450 nm[1].

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Animal Administration
    [1][2]

    Rats[1]
    Sprague-Dawley rats are anaesthetized with a combined anaesthetic (Ketamine, 70 mg/kg; Xylazine, 7 mg/kg ip). Tauroursodeoxycholate is administered orally once a day, in different concentrations (i.e. vehicle, 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. The carotid arteries are fixed by perfusion with 4% formaldehyde, then the tissues are embedded in paraffin, and sections (8 μm) are stained with H&E[1].
    Mice[2]
    Thirty ApoE-/- C57BL/6 male mice aged 8 weeks are randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group): (i) sham operated and injected with physiologic (0.9%) saline as vehicle (normal: group); (ii) mini-osmotic pumps are implanted subcutaneously into the right flank of ApoE-/- mice to release Ang II (1000 ng/kg/min) over the course of 28 days (AAA model group); (iii) AAA model mice treated with Tauroursodeoxycholate daily for 4 weeks at a dosage of 0.5 g/kg/day in drinking water (Tauroursodeoxycholate group). Mice are sacrificed after 28 days of Ang II infusion[2].

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References

    Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 6 months. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 month.

    Optional Solvent Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 25 mg
    H2O / DMSO 1 mM 2.0012 mL 10.0060 mL 20.0120 mL 50.0300 mL
    5 mM 0.4002 mL 2.0012 mL 4.0024 mL 10.0060 mL
    10 mM 0.2001 mL 1.0006 mL 2.0012 mL 5.0030 mL
    15 mM 0.1334 mL 0.6671 mL 1.3341 mL 3.3353 mL
    20 mM 0.1001 mL 0.5003 mL 1.0006 mL 2.5015 mL
    25 mM 0.0800 mL 0.4002 mL 0.8005 mL 2.0012 mL
    30 mM 0.0667 mL 0.3335 mL 0.6671 mL 1.6677 mL
    40 mM 0.0500 mL 0.2502 mL 0.5003 mL 1.2508 mL
    50 mM 0.0400 mL 0.2001 mL 0.4002 mL 1.0006 mL
    DMSO 60 mM 0.0334 mL 0.1668 mL 0.3335 mL 0.8338 mL
    80 mM 0.0250 mL 0.1251 mL 0.2502 mL 0.6254 mL
    100 mM 0.0200 mL 0.1001 mL 0.2001 mL 0.5003 mL

    * Note: If you choose water as the stock solution, please dilute it to the working solution, then filter and sterilize it with a 0.22 μm filter before use.

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