1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Stem Cell/Wnt
    TGF-beta/Smad
  3. TGF-beta/Smad

TGF-beta/Smad

Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a member of a superfamily of pleiotropic proteins that regulate multiple cellular processes such as growth, development and differentiation. The intracellular effectors of TGF-beta signalling, the Smad proteins, are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate transcription. Although this pathway is inherently simple, combinatorial interactions in the heteromeric receptor and Smad complexes, receptor-interacting and Smad-interacting proteins, and cooperation with sequence-specific transcription factors allow substantial versatility and diversification of TGF-beta family responses. Other signalling pathways further regulate Smad activation and function.

In addition, TGF-beta receptors activate Smad-independent pathways that not only regulate Smad signalling, but also allow Smad-independent TGF-beta responses. Aberrant TGF-β signaling is associated with a variety of diseases, such as fibrosis, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hence, the TGF-β signaling pathway is recognized as a potential drug target.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-B0673
    Pirfenidone
    Inhibitor 99.95%
    Pirfenidone (AMR69) is an antifibrotic agent that attenuates CCL2 and CCL12 production in fibrocyte cells. Pirfenidone has growth-inhibitory effect and reduces TGF-β2 protein levels in human glioma cell lines. Pirfenidone also has anti-inflammatory activities.
    Pirfenidone
  • HY-13013
    SIS3
    Inhibitor 98.71%
    (E)-SIS3 is a potent and selective inhibitor of Smad3 with an IC50 of 3 μM for Smad3 phosphorylation. (E)-SIS3 inhibits the myofibroblast differentiation of fibroblasts by TGF-β1.
    SIS3
  • HY-N1584
    Halofuginone
    Inhibitor 99.78%
    Halofuginone (RU-19110), a Febrifugine derivative, is a competitive prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor with a Ki of 18.3 nM. Halofuginone is a specific inhibitor of type-I collagen synthesis and attenuates osteoarthritis (OA) by inhibition of TGF-β activity. Halofuginone is also a potent pulmonary vasodilator by activating Kv channels and blocking voltage-gated, receptor-operated and store-operated Ca2+ channels. Halofuginone has anti-malaria, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis effects.
    Halofuginone
  • HY-N0439
    Asiaticoside
    Modulator 99.84%
    Asiaticoside, a trisaccaride triterpene from Centella asiatica, suppresses TGF-β/Smad signaling through inducing Smad7 and inhibiting TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII in keloid fibroblasts; Asiaticoside shows antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ulcer properties.
    Asiaticoside
  • HY-100347A
    SRI-011381 hydrochloride
    Agonist 99.55%
    SRI-011381 hydrochloride is an orally active TGF-β signaling agonist, exhibits neuroprotective effects.
    SRI-011381 hydrochloride
  • HY-N1584B
    Halofuginone hydrochloride
    Inhibitor
    Halofuginone (RU-19110) hydrobromid, a Febrifugine derivative, is a competitive prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor with a Ki of 18.3 nM. Halofuginone hydrobromid is a specific inhibitor of type-I collagen synthesis and attenuates osteoarthritis (OA) by inhibition of TGF-β activity. Halofuginone hydrobromid is also a potent pulmonary vasodilator by activating Kv channels and blocking voltage-gated, receptor-operated and store-operated Ca2+ channels. Halofuginone hydrobromid has anti-malaria, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis effects.
    Halofuginone hydrochloride
  • HY-142118A
    Trabedersen sodium
    Inhibitor
    Trabedersen sodium is an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide that specifically inhibits TGF-β2 (TGF-beta/Smad). Trabedersen sodium can be used for the study of malignant brain tumors and other solid tumors overexpressing TGF-β2, such as those of the skin, pancreas and colon.
    Trabedersen sodium
  • HY-P990009
    Nisevokitug
    Inhibitor
    Nisevokitug (NIS-793) is a human, IgG2λ antibody targeting TGF-β (TGFB1/TGFB2). Nisevokitug is expressed by CHO-K1 cells.
    Nisevokitug
  • HY-16268
    Kartogenin
    Activator 98.30%
    Kartogenin (KGN) is an inducer of differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, with an EC50 of 100 nM. Kartogenin binds filamin A, disrupts its interaction with the transcription factor core-binding factor β subunit (CBFβ), and induces chondrogenesis by regulating the CBFβ-RUNX1 transcriptional program. Kartogenin can be used for the research of osteoarthritis (OA).
    Kartogenin
  • HY-116084
    Trimethylamine N-oxide
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Trimethylamine N-oxide is a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients. Trimethylamine N-oxide induces inflammation by activating the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome. Trimethylamine N-oxide also accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces cardiac fibrosis by activating the TGF-β/smad2 signaling pathway.
    Trimethylamine N-oxide
  • HY-N0158
    Oxymatrine
    Inhibitor 98.84%
    Oxymatrine, an alkaloid from Sophora flavescens Alt. with anti-inflammatory, antifibrosis, and antitumor effects, inhibits the iNOS expression and TGF-β/Smad pathway. Oxymatrine inhibits bocavirus minute virus of canines (MVC) replication, reduces viral gene expression and decreases apoptosis induced by viral infection.
    Oxymatrine
  • HY-N0038
    Alantolactone
    Activator 99.94%
    Alantolactone is a selective STAT3 inhibitor, with potent anticancer activity. Alantolactone induces apoptosis in cancer.
    Alantolactone
  • HY-P99241
    Ponsegromab
    Inhibitor
    Ponsegromab (PF 06946860) is a potent and selective humanized anti-GDF15 antibody inhibitor with anti-cachexia activity. Ponsegromab binds to GDF15 and prevents the binding of GDF15 to GFRAL, thereby blocking GDF15/GFRAL-mediated signaling. Ponsegromab can be used in the research of cancers.
    Ponsegromab
  • HY-N1584A
    Halofuginone hydrobromide
    Inhibitor 99.99%
    Halofuginone (RU-19110) hydrobromid, a Febrifugine derivative, is a competitive prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor with a Ki of 18.3 nM. Halofuginone hydrobromid is a specific inhibitor of type-I collagen synthesis and attenuates osteoarthritis (OA) by inhibition of TGF-β activity. Halofuginone hydrobromid is also a potent pulmonary vasodilator by activating Kv channels and blocking voltage-gated, receptor-operated and store-operated Ca2+ channels. Halofuginone hydrobromid has anti-malaria, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis effects.
    Halofuginone hydrobromide
  • HY-B0252
    Hydrochlorothiazide
    Inhibitor 99.51%
    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), an orally active diuretic agent of the thiazide class, inhibits transforming TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Hydrochlorothiazide has direct vascular relaxant effects via opening of the calcium-activated potassium (KCA) channel. Hydrochlorothiazide improves cardiac function, reduces fibrosis and has antihypertensive effect.
    Hydrochlorothiazide
  • HY-12953
    R-268712
    Inhibitor 99.78%
    R-268712 is an orally active and selective ALK-5 inhibitor, with an IC50 of 2.5 nM. R-268712 inhibits the phosphorylation of Smad3 in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 10.4 nM. R-268712 suppresses glomerulonephritis as well as glomerulosclerosis by inhibiting TGF-β signaling, which can be used in studies of renal fibrosis and cancer.
    R-268712
  • HY-P99720
    Luspatercept
    Inhibitor 98.92%
    Luspatercept (ACE-536) is a recombinant modified ActRIIB fusion protein that binds with transforming growth factor β superfamily ligands. Luspatercept increases the erythrocyte numbers and promotes maturation of erythroid precursors. Luspatercept binds with GDF11 and inhibits Smad2/3 signaling. Luspatercept can be used for the research of anemia.
    Luspatercept
  • HY-P0118B
    Disitertide diammonium
    Inhibitor 99.53%
    Disitertide (P144) diammonium is a peptidic transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) inhibitor specifically designed to block the interaction with its receptor. Disitertide diammonium is also a PI3K inhibitor and an apoptosis inducer.
    Disitertide diammonium
  • HY-W012977
    3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol
    Inhibitor 99.56%
    3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) is an orally active inhibitor of trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol inhibits the signaling pathway of p65 NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad3. 3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol has potential applications in cardiovascular disease (CVD).
    3,3-Dimethyl-1-butanol
  • HY-108915
    Trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate is a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients. Trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate induces inflammation by activating the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome. Trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate also accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces cardiac fibrosis by activating the TGF-β/smad2 signaling pathway.
    Trimethylamine N-oxide dihydrate
Cat. No. Product Name / Synonyms Species Source
Cat. No. Product Name / Synonyms Application Reactivity