1. Immunology/Inflammation
    NF-κB
    TGF-beta/Smad
    Stem Cell/Wnt
    Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
  2. NOD-like Receptor (NLR)
    Reactive Oxygen Species
    TGF-beta/Smad
    Endogenous Metabolite
  3. Trimethylamine N-oxide

Trimethylamine N-oxide 

Cat. No.: HY-116084 Purity: >98.0%
Handling Instructions

Trimethylamine N-oxide is a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients. Trimethylamine N-oxide induces inflammation by activating the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome. Trimethylamine N-oxide also accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces cardiac fibrosis by activating the TGF-β/smad2 signaling pathway.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Trimethylamine N-oxide Chemical Structure

Trimethylamine N-oxide Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 1184-78-7

Size Price Stock Quantity
10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO USD 55 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
100 mg USD 50 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
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Based on 1 publication(s) in Google Scholar

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Description

Trimethylamine N-oxide is a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients. Trimethylamine N-oxide induces inflammation by activating the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome. Trimethylamine N-oxide also accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces cardiac fibrosis by activating the TGF-β/smad2 signaling pathway[1][2][3].

IC50 & Target

ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome[1]
TGF-β/smad2[1]

In Vitro

The size and migration of fibroblasts are increased after Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) treatment compared with non-treated fibroblasts in vitro. Trimethylamine N-oxide increases TGF-β receptor I expression, which promotes the phosphorylation of Smad2 and up-regulates the expression of α-SMA and collagen I. The ubiquitination of TGF-βRI is decreased in neonatal mouse fibroblasts after Trimethylamine N-oxide treatment. Trimethylamine N-oxide also inhibits the expression of smurf2[2].
Trimethylamine N-oxide is frequently found in the tissues of a variety of marine organisms that protects against the adverse effects of temperature, salinity, high urea and hydrostatic pressure[3].

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

In Vivo

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) contributes to cardiovascular diseases by promoting inflammatory responses. C57BL/6 mice are fed a normal diet, high-choline diet and/or 3-dimethyl-1-butanol (DMB) diet. The levels of Trimethylamine N-oxide and choline are increased in choline-fed mice. Left ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary congestion, and diastolic dysfunction are markedly exacerbated in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) mice fed high-choline diets compared with mice fed the control diet. Myocardial fibrosis and inflammation were markedly increased in HFpEF mice fed high-choline diets compared with animals fed the control diet[1].

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

Molecular Weight

75.11

Formula

C₃H₉NO

CAS No.

1184-78-7

SMILES

CN(C)(C)=O

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Storage
Powder -20°C 3 years
4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
-20°C 1 month
Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

H2O : 100 mg/mL (1331.38 mM; Need ultrasonic)

DMSO : 100 mg/mL (1331.38 mM; Need ultrasonic)

Preparing
Stock Solutions
Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 13.3138 mL 66.5690 mL 133.1381 mL
5 mM 2.6628 mL 13.3138 mL 26.6276 mL
10 mM 1.3314 mL 6.6569 mL 13.3138 mL
*Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
In Vivo:
  • 1.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% saline

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (33.28 mM); Clear solution

  • 2.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in saline)

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (33.28 mM); Clear solution

  • 3.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% corn oil

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (33.28 mM); Clear solution

*All of the co-solvents are provided by MCE.
References

Purity: >98.0%

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Keywords:

Trimethylamine N-oxideNOD-like Receptor (NLR)Reactive Oxygen SpeciesTGF-beta/SmadEndogenous MetaboliteTransforming growth factor betaMicrobe-dependentmetabolitecholinetrimethylaminecardiacdysfunctionmyocardialfibrosisinflammationTGF-βRISmad2Inhibitorinhibitorinhibit

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Trimethylamine N-oxide
Cat. No.:
HY-116084
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