1. Signaling Pathways
  2. PI3K/Akt/mTOR
  3. PI3K

PI3K

PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-kinase), via phosphorylation of the inositol lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), forms the second messenger molecule phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) which recruits and activates pleckstrin homology domain containing proteins, leading to downstream signalling events crucial for proliferation, survival and migration. Class I PI3K enzymes consist of four distinct catalytic isoforms, PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ.

There are three major classes of PI3K enzymes, being class IA widely associated to cancer. Class IA PI3K are heterodimeric lipid kinases composed of a catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, or p110δ; encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB, and PIK3CD genes, respectively) and a regulatory subunit (p85).

The PI3K pathway plays an important role in many biological processes, including cell cycle progression, cell growth, survival, actin rearrangement and migration, and intracellular vesicular transport.

PI3K Isoform Specific Products:

  • PI3Kα

  • PI3Kβ

  • PI3Kγ

  • PI3Kδ

  • PI3KC2α

  • PI3KC2β

  • PI3KC2γ

  • Vps34

  • PI3K

  • PI3KC3

  • p120γ

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-19312
    3-Methyladenine Inhibitor 99.83%
    3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a PI3K inhibitor. 3-Methyladenine is a widely used inhibitor of autophagy via its inhibitory effect on class III PI3K.
  • HY-10108
    LY294002 Inhibitor 99.95%
    LY294002 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of PI3K with IC50s of 0.5, 0.57, and 0.97 μM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ and PI3Kβ, respectively. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with an IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a competitive DNA-PK inhibitorr that binds reversibly to the kinase domain of DNA-PK with an IC50 of 1.4 μM. LY294002 is an autophagy and apoptosis activator.
  • HY-15244
    Alpelisib Inhibitor 99.95%
    Alpelisib (BYL-719) is a potent, selective, and orally active PI3Kα inhibitor. Alpelisib (BYL-719) shows efficacy in targeting PIK3CA-mutated cancer. Alpelisib (BYL-719) also inhibits p110α/p110γ/p110δ/p110β with IC50s of 5/250/290/1200 nM, respectively. Antineoplastic activity.
  • HY-10197
    Wortmannin Inhibitor 99.85%
    Wortmannin (SL-2052; KY-12420) is a potent, selective and irreversible PI3K inhibitor with an IC50 of 3 nM. Wortmannin also blocks autophagy formation, and potently inhibits Polo-like kinase 1 (PlK1) and Plk3 with IC50s of 5.8 and 48 nM, respectively.
  • HY-18085
    Quercetin Inhibitor >98.0%
    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively.
  • HY-10681
    Gedatolisib Inhibitor 99.68%
    Gedatolisib (PKI-587) is a highly potent dual inhibitor of PI3Kα, PI3Kγ, and mTOR with IC50s of 0.4 nM, 5.4 nM and 1.6 nM, respectively. PKI-587 is equally effective in both complexes of mTOR, mTORC1 and mTORC2.
  • HY-135827
    MSC2360844 Inhibitor
    MSC2360844 is a potent, orally active and selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, with an IC50 of 145 nM. MSC2360844 shows highly selective against a panel of 278 additional kinases.
  • HY-13440
    AMG 511 Inhibitor 98.37%
    AMG 511 is a potent and orally available pan inhibitor of class I PI3Ks, with Kis of 4 nM, 6 nM, 2 nM and 1 nM for PI3Kα, β, δ and γ, respectively. AMG 511 significantly suppresses PI3K signaling that is indicated by p-Akt (Ser473) decrease. AMG 511 exhibits anti-tumor activity in mouse glioblastoma xenograft model.
  • HY-15346
    Copanlisib Inhibitor 98.91%
    Copanlisib (BAY 80-6946) is a potent, selective and ATP-competitive pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, with IC50s of 0.5 nM, 0.7 nM, 3.7 nM and 6.4 nM for PI3Kα, PI3Kδ, PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ, respectively. Copanlisib has more than 2,000-fold selectivity against other lipid and protein kinases, except for mTOR. Copanlisib has superior antitumor activity.
  • HY-70063
    Buparlisib Inhibitor 99.90%
    Buparlisib (BKM120; NVP-BKM120) is a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, with IC50s of 52, 166, 116 and 262 nM for p110α, p110β, p110δ and p110γ, respectively.
  • HY-13026
    Idelalisib Inhibitor 99.98%
    Idelalisib (CAL-101; GS-1101) is a highly selective and orally bioavailable p110δ inhibitor with an IC50 of 2.5 nM, showing 40- to 300-fold selectivity for p110δ over other PI3K class I enzymes.
  • HY-P0175
    740 Y-P Activator 98.32%
    740 Y-P (740YPDGFR; PDGFR 740Y-P) is a potent and cell-permeable PI3K activator. 740 Y-P readily binds GST fusion proteins containing both the N- and C- terminal SH2 domains of p85 but fails to bind GST alone.
  • HY-50094
    Pictilisib Inhibitor 99.62%
    Pictilisib (GDC-0941) is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα/δ with an IC50 of 3 nM, with modest selectivity against p110β (11-fold) and p110γ (25-fold).
  • HY-100716
    IPI549 Inhibitor 99.65%
    IPI549 is a potent and selective PI3Kγ inhibitor with an IC50 of 16 nM. IPI549 shows >100-fold selectivity over other lipid and protein kinases.
  • HY-50673
    Dactolisib Inhibitor 99.68%
    Dactolisib (BEZ235) is a dual pan-class I PI3K and mTOR kinase inhibitor with IC50s of 4 nM/5 nM/7 nM/75 nM, and 20.7 nM for p110α/p110γ/p110δ/p110β and mTOR, respectively. Dactolisib (BEZ235) inhibits both mTORC1 and mTORC2.
  • HY-12481
    SAR405 Inhibitor 99.52%
    SAR405 is a first-in-class, selective, and ATP-competitive PI3K class III (PIK3C3) isoform Vps34 inhibitor (IC50=1.2 nM; Kd=1.5 nM). SAR405 inhibits autophagy induced either by starvation or by mTOR inhibition. Anticancer activity.
  • HY-17044
    Duvelisib Inhibitor 99.91%
    Duvelisib is a selectivite p100δ inhibitor with IC50 of 2.5 nM, 27.4 nM, 85 nM and 1602 nM for p110δ, P110γ, p110β and p110α, respectively.
  • HY-13522
    Fimepinostat Inhibitor 99.95%
    Fimepinostat (CUDC-907) potently inhibits class I PI3Ks as well as classes I and II HDAC enzymes with an IC50 of 19/54/39 nM and 1.7/5.0/1.8/2.8 nM for PI3Kα/PI3Kβ/PI3Kδ and HDAC1/HDAC2/HDAC3/HDAC10 , respectively.
  • HY-101562
    GDC-0077 Inhibitor 98.94%
    GDC-0077 (RG6114) is a potent, orally available, and selective PI3Kα inhibitor (IC50=0.038 nM). GDC-0077 (RG6114) exerts its activity by binding to the ATP binding site of PI3K, thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of PIP2 to PIP3. GDC-0077 (RG6114) is more selective for mutant versus wild-type PI3Kα.
  • HY-10115
    PI-103 Inhibitor 99.86%
    PI-103 is a potent PI3K and mTOR inhibitor with IC50s of 8 nM, 88 nM, 48 nM, 150 nM, 20 nM, and 83 nM for p110α, p110β, p110δ, p110γ, mTORC1, and mTORC2. PI-103 also inhibits DNA-PK with an IC50 of 2 nM. PI-103 induces autophagy.

Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that integrate signals from growth factors, cytokines and other environmental cues, translating them into intracellular signals that regulate multiple signaling pathways. These pathways control many physiological functions and cellular processes, which include cell proliferation, growth, survival, motility and metabolism[1]

 

In the absence of activating signals, p85 interacts with p110 and inhibits p110 kinase activity. Following receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) or G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation, class I PI3Ks are recruited to the plasma membrane, where p85 inhibition of p110 is relieved and p110 phosphorylates PIP2 to generate PIP3. The activated insulin receptor recruits intracellular adaptor protein IRS1. Phosphorylation of IRS proteins on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor initiates the recruitment and activation of PI3K. PIP3 acts as a second messenger which promotes the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 by PDK-1. RTK activation can also trigger Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. Activated Akt, ERK and RSK phosphorylate TSC2 at multiple sites to inhibit TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7, which is the TSC complex that acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for the small GTPase RHEB. During inhibition of the TSC complex, GTP-loaded RHEB binds the mTOR catalytic domain to activate mTORC1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activates the TSC complex by phosphorylating TSC2 at Ser1379 and Ser1383. Phosphorylation of these two residues requires priming by AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of Ser1387. Wnt signaling inhibits GSK-3β and the TSC complex, and thus activates mTORC1. mTORC2 is activated by Wnt in a manner dependent on the small GTPase RAC1. Akt activation contributes to diverse cellular activities which include cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, and migration. Important downstream targets of Akt are GSK-3, FOXOs, BAD, AS160, eNOS, and mTOR. mTORC1 negatively regulates autophagy through multiple inputs, including inhibitory phosphorylation of ULK1, and promotes protein synthesis through activation of the translation initiation promoter S6K and through inhibition of the inhibitory mRNA cap binding 4E-BP1[1][2][3].

 

PI3Kδ is a heterodimeric enzyme, typically composed of a p85α regulatory subunit and a p110δ catalytic subunit. In T cells, the TCR, the costimulatory receptor ICOS and the IL-2R can activate PI3Kδ. In B cells, PI3Kδ is activated upon crosslinking of the B cell receptor (BCR). The BCR co-opts the co-receptor CD19 or the adaptor B cell associated protein (BCAP), both of which have YXXM motifs to which the p85α SH2 domains can bind. In lumphocytes, BTK and ITK contribute to the activation of PLCγ and promotes the generation of DAG and the influx of Ca2+, which in turn activate PKC and the CARMA1-, BCL 10- and MALT1 containing (CBM) complex. The resulting NF-κB inhibitor kinase (IKK) activation leads to the phosphorylation and the degradation of IκB, and to the nuclear accumulation of the p50-p65 NF-κB heterodimer. MyD88 is an adapter protein that mediates signal transduction for most TLRs and leads to activation of PI3K[4].

 

Reference:

[1]. Thorpe LM, et al. PI3K in cancer: divergent roles of isoforms, modes of activation and therapeutic targeting.Nat Rev Cancer. 2015 Jan;15(1):7-24. 
[2]. Vanhaesebroeck B, et al. PI3K signalling: the path to discovery and understanding.Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012 Feb 23;13(3):195-203. 
[3]. Fruman DA, et al. The PI3K Pathway in Human Disease.Cell. 2017 Aug 10;170(4):605-635.
[4]. Lucas CL, et al. PI3Kδ and primary immunodeficiencies.Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Nov;16(11):702-714. 

Targets/MCE-PI3K-Signaling-Pathway.png

Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that integrate signals from growth factors, cytokines and other environmental cues, translating them into intracellular signals that regulate multiple signaling pathways. These pathways control many physiological functions and cellular processes, which include cell proliferation, growth, survival, motility and metabolism[1]

 

In the absence of activating signals, p85 interacts with p110 and inhibits p110 kinase activity. Following receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) or G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation, class I PI3Ks are recruited to the plasma membrane, where p85 inhibition of p110 is relieved and p110 phosphorylates PIP2 to generate PIP3. The activated insulin receptor recruits intracellular adaptor protein IRS1. Phosphorylation of IRS proteins on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor initiates the recruitment and activation of PI3K. PIP3 acts as a second messenger which promotes the phosphorylation of Akt at Thr308 by PDK-1. RTK activation can also trigger Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. Activated Akt, ERK and RSK phosphorylate TSC2 at multiple sites to inhibit TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7, which is the TSC complex that acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for the small GTPase RHEB. During inhibition of the TSC complex, GTP-loaded RHEB binds the mTOR catalytic domain to activate mTORC1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activates the TSC complex by phosphorylating TSC2 at Ser1379 and Ser1383. Phosphorylation of these two residues requires priming by AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of Ser1387. Wnt signaling inhibits GSK-3β and the TSC complex, and thus activates mTORC1. mTORC2 is activated by Wnt in a manner dependent on the small GTPase RAC1. Akt activation contributes to diverse cellular activities which include cell survival, growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, metabolism, and migration. Important downstream targets of Akt are GSK-3, FOXOs, BAD, AS160, eNOS, and mTOR. mTORC1 negatively regulates autophagy through multiple inputs, including inhibitory phosphorylation of ULK1, and promotes protein synthesis through activation of the translation initiation promoter S6K and through inhibition of the inhibitory mRNA cap binding 4E-BP1[1][2][3].

 

PI3Kδ is a heterodimeric enzyme, typically composed of a p85α regulatory subunit and a p110δ catalytic subunit. In T cells, the TCR, the costimulatory receptor ICOS and the IL-2R can activate PI3Kδ. In B cells, PI3Kδ is activated upon crosslinking of the B cell receptor (BCR). The BCR co-opts the co-receptor CD19 or the adaptor B cell associated protein (BCAP), both of which have YXXM motifs to which the p85α SH2 domains can bind. In lumphocytes, BTK and ITK contribute to the activation of PLCγ and promotes the generation of DAG and the influx of Ca2+, which in turn activate PKC and the CARMA1-, BCL 10- and MALT1 containing (CBM) complex. The resulting NF-κB inhibitor kinase (IKK) activation leads to the phosphorylation and the degradation of IκB, and to the nuclear accumulation of the p50-p65 NF-κB heterodimer. MyD88 is an adapter protein that mediates signal transduction for most TLRs and leads to activation of PI3K[4].

 

Reference:

[1]. Thorpe LM, et al. PI3K in cancer: divergent roles of isoforms, modes of activation and therapeutic targeting.Nat Rev Cancer. 2015 Jan;15(1):7-24. 
[2]. Vanhaesebroeck B, et al. PI3K signalling: the path to discovery and understanding.Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012 Feb 23;13(3):195-203. 
[3]. Fruman DA, et al. The PI3K Pathway in Human Disease.Cell. 2017 Aug 10;170(4):605-635.
[4]. Lucas CL, et al. PI3Kδ and primary immunodeficiencies.Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Nov;16(11):702-714. 

Isoform Specific Products

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