1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Immunology/Inflammation
    Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
    NF-κB
  3. Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. Cellular ROS are generated endogenously during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion.

ROS also activates MAPK pathways by the direct inhibition of MAPK phosphatases. Through PTEN, the PI3K pathway is subject to reversible redox regulation by ROS generated by growth factor stimulation. The activation of autophagy may be a cellular defense mechanism in response to ROS.

Reactive Oxygen Species Related Products (236):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis. Acetylcysteine also has anti-influenza virus activities.
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA
    ≥98.0%
    H2DCFDA (DCFH-DA) is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Ex/Em=488/525 nm).
  • HY-18085
    Quercetin
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively.
  • HY-100116A
    Mitoquinone mesylate
    ≥98.0%
    Mitoquinone mesylate is a TPP-based, mitochondrially targeted antioxidant in order to protect against oxidative damage.
  • HY-B0166
    L-Ascorbic acid
    99.92%
    L-Ascorbic acid (L-Ascorbate), an electron donor, is an endogenous antioxidant agent. L-Ascorbic acid inhibits selectively Cav3.2 channels with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. L-Ascorbic acid is also a collagen deposition enhancer and an elastogenesis inhibitor. L-Ascorbic acid exhibits anti-cancer effects through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and selective damage to cancer cells.
  • HY-N1428C
    Ferric citrate
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Ferric citrate (Iron(III) citrate), an orally active iron supplement, is an efficacious phosphate binder. Ferric citratee can be used for iron deficiency anemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) research.
  • HY-W015913
    Sodium 2-oxopropanoate
    Inhibitor
    Sodium 2-oxopropanoate (Sodium pyruvate), a three-carbon metabolite of Glucose, is a compound produced in the glycolytic pathway. Sodium 2-oxopropanoate is a free radical scavenger that can scavenge ROS.
  • HY-B2130A
    Uric acid sodium
    Inhibitor 99.55%
    Uric acid sodium, scavenger of oxygen radical, is a very important antioxidant that help maintains the stability of blood pressure and antioxidant stress. Uric acid sodium can remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen and peroxynitrite, inhibiting lipid peroxidation.
  • HY-13653
    (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate
    99.87%
    (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is a tea flavonoid with potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is reported to inhibit EGFR signaling and thereby exert anticancer effects. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) is a glutamate dehydrogenase 1/2 (GDH1/2, GLUD1/2) inhibitor. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by activating cytochrome c oxidase.
  • HY-100965
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride
    Inhibitor 99.90%
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride is a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor and also functions as a TRPA1 activator with an EC50 of 1 to 3 μM. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species.
  • HY-101445
    Trolox
    99.87%
    Trolox is an analogue of vitamin E with a powerful antioxidant effect. Trolox is also a powerful inhibitor of membrane damage.
  • HY-18950
    GSK2795039
    Inhibitor 99.71%
    GSK2795039 is a NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor with a mean pIC50 of 6 in different cell-free assays. GSK2795039 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH consumption. GSK2795039 reduces apoptosis.
  • HY-D0187
    L-Glutathione reduced
    ≥98.0%
    L-Glutathione reduced (GSH; γ-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is an endogenous antioxidant and is capable of scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals.
  • HY-17363
    Dimethyl fumarate
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an orally active and brain-penetrant Nrf2 activator and induces upregulation of antioxidant gene expression. Dimethyl fumarate induces necroptosis in colon cancer cells through GSH depletion/ROS increase/MAPKs activation pathway, and also induces cell autophagy. Dimethyl fumarate can be used for multiple sclerosis research.
  • HY-18258
    Berberine chloride
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Berberine chloride is an alkaloid that acts as an antibiotic. Berberine chloride induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibits DNA topoisomerase. Antineoplastic properties.
  • HY-101193
    Zinc Protoporphyrin
    ≥98.0%
    Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is an orally active and competitive heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor and markedly attenuates the protective effects of Phloroglucinol (PG) against H2O2. Zinc Protoporphyrin is used as a screening marker of iron deficiency in individual pregnant women and children, but also to assess population iron status in combination with haemoglobin concentration. Zinc Protoporphyrin has anti-cancer activity.
  • HY-Y0445A
    Sodium dichloroacetate
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Sodium dichloroacetate is a metabolic regulator in cancer cells' mitochondria with anticancer activity. Sodium dichloroacetate inhibits PDHK, resulting in decreased lactic acid in the tumor microenvironment. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and promotes cancer cell apoptosis. Sodium dichloroacetate also works as NKCC inhibitor.
  • HY-N0683
    α-Vitamin E
    ≥99.0%
    α-Vitamin E ((+)-α-Tocopherol), a naturally occurring vitamin E form, is a potent antioxidant.
  • HY-12033
    2-Methoxyestradiol
    Activator 99.82%
    2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2), an orally active endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol (E2), is an apoptosis inducer and an angiogenesis inhibitor with potent antineoplastic activity. 2-Methoxyestradiol also destablize microtubules. 2-Methoxyestradio, also a potent superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor and a ROS-generating agent, induces autophagy in the transformed cell line HEK293 and the cancer cell lines U87 and HeLa.
  • HY-N0287
    Lycopene
    ≥98.0%
    Lycopene is naturally occurring carotenoids found in tomato, tomato products, and in other red fruits and vegetables; exhibits antioxidant effects.
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