1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Immunology/Inflammation
    Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
    NF-κB
  3. Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. Cellular ROS are generated endogenously during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion.

ROS also activates MAPK pathways by the direct inhibition of MAPK phosphatases. Through PTEN, the PI3K pathway is subject to reversible redox regulation by ROS generated by growth factor stimulation. The activation of autophagy may be a cellular defense mechanism in response to ROS.

Reactive Oxygen Species Related Products (204):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis. Acetylcysteine also has anti-influenza virus activities.
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA ≥98.0%
    H2DCFDA (DCFH-DA) is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • HY-18085
    Quercetin Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively.
  • HY-100116A
    Mitoquinone mesylate ≥98.0%
    Mitoquinone mesylate is a TPP-based, mitochondrially targeted antioxidant in order to protect against oxidative damage.
  • HY-13653
    (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate 99.91%
    (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is a tea flavonoid with potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is reported to inhibit EGFR signaling and thereby exert anticancer effects. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) is a glutamate dehydrogenase 1/2 (GDH1/2, GLUD1/2) inhibitor. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by activating cytochrome c oxidase.
  • HY-W041080
    3,5-Di-tert-butylphenol Activator
    3,5-Di-tert-butylphenol is an volatile organic compound with anti-biofilm and antifungal activities. 3,5-Di-tert-butylphenol induces accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • HY-111226
    GSK5182 Activator
    GSK5182 is a highly selective and orally active inverse agonist of estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) with an IC50 of 79 nM. GSK5182 does not interact with other nuclear receptors, including ERRα or ERα. GSK5182 also induces reactive oxyen species (ROS) generation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
  • HY-B1106A
    Tetrahydroxyquinone monohydrate Activator
    Tetrahydroxyquinone hydrate (Tetrahydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone hydrate), a primitive anticataract agent, is a redox active benzoquinone. Tetrahydroxyquinone hydrate can take part in a redox cycle with semiquinone radicals, leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • HY-100965
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride Inhibitor 99.90%
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride is a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor and also functions as a TRPA1 activator with an EC50 of 1 to 3 μM. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species.
  • HY-B0166
    L-Ascorbic acid 99.92%
    L-Ascorbic acid (L-Ascorbate), an electron donor, is an endogenous antioxidant agent. L-Ascorbic acid inhibits selectively Cav3.2 channels with an IC50 of 6.5 μM. L-Ascorbic acid is also a collagen deposition enhancer and an elastogenesis inhibitor.
  • HY-18950
    GSK2795039 Inhibitor 98.14%
    GSK2795039 is a NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor with a mean pIC50 of 6 in different cell-free assays. GSK2795039 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH consumption. GSK2795039 reduces apoptosis.
  • HY-101445
    Trolox 99.87%
    Trolox is an analogue of vitamin E with a powerful antioxidant effect. Trolox is also a powerful inhibitor of membrane damage.
  • HY-D0187
    L-Glutathione reduced ≥98.0%
    L-Glutathione reduced (GSH; γ-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is an endogenous antioxidant and is capable of scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals.
  • HY-17363
    Dimethyl fumarate Activator ≥98.0%
    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an orally active and brain-penetrant Nrf2 activator and induces upregulation of antioxidant gene expression. Dimethyl fumarate induces necroptosis in colon cancer cells through GSH depletion/ROS increase/MAPKs activation pathway, and also induces cell autophagy. Dimethyl fumarate can be used for multiple sclerosis research.
  • HY-18258
    Berberine chloride Activator ≥98.0%
    Berberine chloride is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Huanglian, as an antibiotic. Berberine chloride induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibits DNA topoisomerase. Antineoplastic properties.
  • HY-12033
    2-Methoxyestradiol Activator 99.82%
    2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2), an orally active endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol (E2), is an apoptosis inducer and an angiogenesis inhibitor with potent antineoplastic activity. 2-Methoxyestradiol also destablize microtubules. 2-Methoxyestradio, also a potent superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor and a ROS-generating agent, induces autophagy in the transformed cell line HEK293 and the cancer cell lines U87 and HeLa.
  • HY-100202
    TPEN Activator ≥98.0%
    TPEN (TPEDA) is a specific cell-permeable heavy metal chelator. TPEN has a higher affinity for Zn2+, but a lower affinity for Mg2+ and Ca2+. TPEN induces DNA damage and increases intracellular ROS production. TPEN also inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.
  • HY-101193
    Zinc Protoporphyrin ≥98.0%
    Zinc Protoporphyrin (Zn(II)-protoporphyrin IX) is an orally active and competitive heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor and markedly attenuates the protective effects of Phloroglucinol (PG) against H2O2. Zinc Protoporphyrin is used as a screening marker of iron deficiency in individual pregnant women and children, but also to assess population iron status in combination with haemoglobin concentration. Zinc Protoporphyrin has anti-cancer activity.
  • HY-N0287
    Lycopene ≥98.0%
    Lycopene is naturally occurring carotenoids found in tomato, tomato products, and in other red fruits and vegetables; exhibits antioxidant effects.
  • HY-100599
    Urolithin A 98.05%
    Urolithin A, a gut-microbial metabolite of ellagic acid, exerts anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antioxidant properties. Urolithin A induces autophagy and apoptosis, suppresses cell cycle progression, and inhibits DNA synthesis.
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