1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Immunology/Inflammation
    Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
    NF-κB
  3. Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O2-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (HO•), consist of radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen. Cellular ROS are generated endogenously during mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as well as in cellular response to xenobiotics, cytokines, and bacterial invasion.

ROS also activates MAPK pathways by the direct inhibition of MAPK phosphatases. Through PTEN, the PI3K pathway is subject to reversible redox regulation by ROS generated by growth factor stimulation. The activation of autophagy may be a cellular defense mechanism in response to ROS.

Reactive Oxygen Species Related Products (185):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-D0940
    H2DCFDA 99.82%
    H2DCFDA is a cell-permeable probe used to detect intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • HY-B0215
    Acetylcysteine Inhibitor >98.0%
    Acetylcysteine (N-Acetylcysteine) is a mucolytic agent which reduces the thickness of the mucus. Acetylcysteine is a ROS inhibitor. Acetylcysteine is a cysteine precursor, prevents hemin-induced ferroptosis by neutralizing toxic lipids generated by arachidonate-dependent activity of 5-lipoxygenases. Acetylcysteine induces cell apoptosis. Acetylcysteine also has anti-influenza virus activities.
  • HY-100116A
    Mitoquinone mesylate >98.0%
    Mitoquinone mesylate is a TPP-based, mitochondrially targeted antioxidant in order to protect against oxidative damage.
  • HY-13653
    (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate 99.91%
    (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is a tea flavonoid with potent antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate is reported to inhibit EGFR signaling and thereby exert anticancer effects. (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) is a glutamate dehydrogenase 1/2 (GDH1/2, GLUD1/2) inhibitor. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces oxidative phosphorylation by activating cytochrome c oxidase.
  • HY-100965
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride Inhibitor 99.87%
    Diphenyleneiodonium chloride is a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor and also functions as a TRPA1 activator with an EC50 of 1 to 3 μM. Diphenyleneiodonium chloride selectively inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species.
  • HY-Y0445A
    Sodium dichloroacetate Activator >98.0%
    Sodium dichloroacetate is a metabolic regulator in cancer cells' mitochondria with anticancer activity. Sodium dichloroacetate inhibits PDHK, resulting in decreased lactic acid in the tumor microenvironment. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and promotes cancer cell apoptosis. Sodium dichloroacetate also works as NKCC inhibitor.
  • HY-16992A
    W-54011 Inhibitor >98.0%
    W-54011 is a potent and orally active non-peptide C5a receptor antagonist. W-54011 inhibits the binding of 125I-labeled C5a to human neutrophils with a Ki value of 2.2 nM. W-54011 also inhibits C5a-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, chemotaxis, and generation of ROS in human neutrophils with IC50s of 3.1 nM, 2.7 nM, and 1.6 nM, respectively.
  • HY-111226A
    (E/Z)-GSK5182 Activator 98.90%
    (E/Z)-GSK5182 is a racemic compound of (E)-GSK5182 and (Z)-GSK5182 isomers. GSK5182 is a highly selective and orally active inverse agonist of estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) with an IC50 of 79 nM. GSK5182 also induces reactive oxyen species (ROS) generation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • HY-18950
    GSK2795039 Inhibitor 98.14%
    GSK2795039 is a NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor with a mean pIC50 of 6 in different cell-free assays. GSK2795039 inhibits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH consumption. GSK2795039 reduces apoptosis.
  • HY-B0166
    L-Ascorbic acid 99.89%
    L-Ascorbic acid is an effective reducing agent and donor antioxidant.
  • HY-101445
    Trolox 99.53%
    Trolox is a vitamin E analogue and is a powerful antioxidant.
  • HY-D0187
    L-Glutathione reduced 99.83%
    L-Glutathione reduced (GSH; γ-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is an endogenous antioxidant and is capable of scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals.
  • HY-100168
    BAPTA Inhibitor >98.0%
    BAPTA is a calcium chelator. BAPTA suppresses intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels.
  • HY-17577
    Berberine chloride hydrate Activator 99.82%
    Berberine chloride hydrate (Natural Yellow 18 chloride hydrate) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Huanglian, as an antibiotic. Berberine chloride hydrate induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibits DNA topoisomerase. Antineoplastic properties.
  • HY-100599
    Urolithin A 98.05%
    Urolithin A, a gut-microbial metabolite of ellagic acid, exerts anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antioxidant properties. Urolithin A induces autophagy and apoptosis, suppresses cell cycle progression, and inhibits DNA synthesis.
  • HY-N0796
    Procyanidin B2 99.40%
    Procyanidin B2 is a natural flavonoid, with anti-cancer, antioxidant activities.
  • HY-110256
    N-Acetylcysteine amide >99.0%
    N-Acetylcysteine amide is a cell membranes and blood brain barrier permeant thiol antioxidant and neuroprotective agent, reduces ROS production.
  • HY-14771A
    Imeglimin hydrochloride Inhibitor >98.0%
    Imeglimin hydrochloride (EMD 387008) is an oral glucose-lowering agent. Imeglimin also reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increases mitochondrial DNA and improves mitochondrial function.
  • HY-N0439
    Asiaticoside 99.84%
    Asiaticoside, a trisaccaride triterpene from Centella asiatica, suppresses TGF-β/Smad signaling through inducing Smad7 and inhibiting TGF-βRI and TGF-βRII in keloid fibroblasts; Asiaticoside shows antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ulcer properties.
  • HY-N0287
    Lycopene >98.0%
    Lycopene is naturally occurring carotenoids found in tomato, tomato products, and in other red fruits and vegetables; exhibits antioxidant effects.
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