1. Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
    NF-κB
    Immunology/Inflammation
    Membrane Transporter/Ion Channel
    Apoptosis
  2. PDHK
    Reactive Oxygen Species
    NKCC
    Apoptosis
  3. Sodium dichloroacetate

Sodium dichloroacetate 

Cat. No.: HY-Y0445A Purity: >98.0%
Handling Instructions

Sodium dichloroacetate is a metabolic regulator in cancer cells' mitochondria with anticancer activity. Sodium dichloroacetate inhibits PDHK, resulting in decreased lactic acid in the tumor microenvironment. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and promotes cancer cell apoptosis. Sodium dichloroacetate also works as NKCC inhibitor.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Sodium dichloroacetate Chemical Structure

Sodium dichloroacetate Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 2156-56-1

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10 mM * 1  mL in DMSO USD 50 In-stock
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Description

Sodium dichloroacetate is a metabolic regulator in cancer cells' mitochondria with anticancer activity. Sodium dichloroacetate inhibits PDHK, resulting in decreased lactic acid in the tumor microenvironment. Sodium dichloroacetate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and promotes cancer cell apoptosis. Sodium dichloroacetate also works as NKCC inhibitor[1].

IC50 & Target

PDHK; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Apoptosis; NKCC[1]

In Vitro

Sodium dichloroacetate increases ROS generation in mitochondria. Sodium dichloroacetate affects cell growth and viability through the ROS production increase derived from the promotion of oxidative metabolism. The effects of Sodium dichloroacetate on multiple myeloma cell viability, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic cell death were associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) inhibition, restored pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, and the promotion of oxidative metabolism in association with increased intracellular ROS production which depends on the Sodium dichloroacetate dose. The Sodium dichloroacetate effects cooperated with C I inhibition promoting the oxidative stress in rat VM-M3 glioblastoma cells. Increased ROS levels in Sodium dichloroacetate-treated cancer cells are related to the induction of apoptosis associated with the increased cytochrome c expression. Sodium dichloroacetate causes ROS-dependent T-cell differentiation[1].

In Vivo

The NKCC1 RNA expression levels in Sodium dichloroacetate-treated gonad-intact and castrated males are significantly decreased, and no such effect is determined in the gonad-intact and castrated female Sodium dichloroacetate-treated rats[1].
A single Sodium dichloroacetate dose causes a significantly higher 24 h diuresis in Wistar male rats, and the increased diuresis is related to NKCC2 inhibition. The NKCC2 is more abundant in kidneys of intact females compared to intact males, with a greater transporter density in Sprague-Dawley female rats[1].
The oral Sodium dichloroacetate bioavailability in naïve male rats dosed 5, 20 and 100 mg/kg is significantly lower than in GSTζ-depleted ones (10%, 13%, 81% and 31%, 75%, 100%, respectively). The liver extraction of Sodium dichloroacetate in the GSTζ-depleted rats has linear kinetics, but it decreases with the metabolism saturation at higher doses[1].

Clinical Trial
Molecular Weight

150.92

Formula

C₂HCl₂NaO₂

CAS No.

2156-56-1

SMILES

O=C(O[Na])C(Cl)Cl

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Storage
Powder -20°C 3 years
  4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
  -20°C 1 month
Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

DMSO : ≥ 250 mg/mL (1656.51 mM)

*"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Preparing
Stock Solutions
Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 6.6260 mL 33.1301 mL 66.2603 mL
5 mM 1.3252 mL 6.6260 mL 13.2521 mL
10 mM 0.6626 mL 3.3130 mL 6.6260 mL
*Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
In Vivo:
  • 1.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% saline

    Solubility: ≥ 2.25 mg/mL (14.91 mM); Clear solution

  • 2.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in saline)

    Solubility: ≥ 2.25 mg/mL (14.91 mM); Clear solution

  • 3.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% corn oil

    Solubility: ≥ 2.25 mg/mL (14.91 mM); Clear solution

*All of the co-solvents are provided by MCE.
References
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Keywords:

Sodium dichloroacetatePDHKReactive Oxygen SpeciesNKCCApoptosisPyruvate dehydrogenase kinasePDH kinaseNa-K-Cl cotransporterNa(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporterNa+-K+-Cl− cotransporter AnticancermitochondriametabolicpyruvatedehydrogenaselacticacidROSapoptosisInhibitorinhibitorinhibit

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Sodium dichloroacetate
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HY-Y0445A
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