1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Immunology/Inflammation
  3. NOD-like Receptor (NLR)

NOD-like Receptor (NLR)

Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are critical cytoplasmic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that play an important role in the host innate immune response and immunity homeostasis. There are 23 NLR family members in humans and at least 34 NLR genes in mice. NLRs are expressed in many cell types including immune cells and epithelial cells, although certain NLR family members are expressed primarily in phagocytes including macrophages and neutrophils. The NLR family are most commonly classified according to their N-terminal domain, falling into one of four subfamilies; NLRA, NLRB, NLRC and NLRP.

The NLRs recognize various ligands from microbial pathogens (peptidoglycan, flagellin, viral RNA, fungal hyphae, etc.), host cells (ATPs, cholesterol crystals, uric acid, etc.), and environmental sources (alum, asbestos, silica, alloy particles, UV radiation, skin irritants, etc.). Most NLRs act as PRRs, recognizing the above ligands and activate inflammatory responses. However, some NLRs may not act as PRRs but instead respond to cytokines such as interferons. The activated NLRs show various functions that can be divided into four broad categories: inflammasome formation, signaling transduction, transcription activation, and autophagy.

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity Chemical Structure
  • HY-12815A
    MCC950 sodium
    Inhibitor 99.61%
    MCC950 sodium (CP-456773 sodium; CRID3 sodium salt) is a potent, selective NLRP3 inhibitor with IC50s of 7.5 and 8.1 nM in BMDMs and HMDMs, respectively.
    MCC950 sodium
  • HY-100381
    Nigericin sodium salt
    Activator 99.36%
    Nigericin sodium salt is an antibiotic from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that works by acting as an H+, K+, and Pb2+ ionophore, a NLRP3 activator.
    Nigericin sodium salt
  • HY-101092
    QS-21
    Activator 99.14%
    QS-21, an immunostimulatory saponin, could be used as a potent vaccine adjuvant. QS-21 stimulates Th2 humoral and Th1 cell-mediated immune responses through action on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells. QS-21 can activate the NLRP3 inflammasome with subsequent release of caspase-1 dependent cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18.
    QS-21
  • HY-12815
    MCC950
    Inhibitor 99.43%
    MCC950 (CP-456773; CRID3) is a potent and selective NLRP3 inhibitor with IC50s of 7.5 and 8.1 nM in BMDMs and HMDMs, respectively.
    MCC950
  • HY-103666
    CY-09
    Inhibitor 98.01%
    CY-09 is a selective and direct NLRP3 inhibitor. CY-09 directly binds to the ATP-binding motif of NLRP3 NACHT domain and inhibits NLRP3 ATPase activity, resulting in the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation.
    CY-09
  • HY-156798
    ADS032
    99.74%
    ADS032 is a dual inhibitor of NLRP1 and NLRP3 that can rapidly, reversibly and stably inhibit inflammasome formation. ADS032 can reduce NLPR1 and NLRP3 activation of human macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells to secrete and mature IL-1β and TNF-α, and reduce NLRP3-induced ASC speck formation. ADS032 protected mice against the deadly influenza A virus, reducing inflammation in the lungs and improving survival. ADS032 inhibits Nigericin (HY-127019)-induced IL-1β secretion with IC50s of 94.6 μM (No wash out) and 354 μM (Wash out) respectively.
    ADS032
  • HY-156647
    Usnoflast
    Modulator 98.29%
    Usnoflast is a NLRP3 modulator, as well as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAD).
    Usnoflast
  • HY-156438
    NT-0796
    Inhibitor
    NT-0796 is a selective and CNS-penetrant NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.32 nM in PBMC assay. NT-0796 is an isopropyl ester that undergoes intracellular conversion to NDT-19795, the carboxylic acid active species. NT-0796 has the potential for neuroinflammatory diseases research.
    NT-0796
  • HY-116084
    Trimethylamine N-oxide
    Activator ≥98.0%
    Trimethylamine N-oxide is a gut microbe-dependent metabolite of dietary choline and other trimethylamine-containing nutrients. Trimethylamine N-oxide induces inflammation by activating the ROS/NLRP3 inflammasome. Trimethylamine N-oxide also accelerates fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation and induces cardiac fibrosis by activating the TGF-β/smad2 signaling pathway.
    Trimethylamine N-oxide
  • HY-127090
    Muramyl dipeptide
    Agonist ≥98.0%
    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is a synthetic immunoreactive peptide, consisting of N-acetyl muramic acid attached to a short amino acid chain of L-Ala-D-isoGln. Muramyl dipeptide is an inducer of bone formation through induction of Runx2. Muramyl dipeptide directly enhances osteoblast differentiation by up-regulating Runx2 gene expression through MAPK pathways. Muramyl dipeptide is a NLRP1 agonist.
    Muramyl dipeptide
  • HY-17629
    Dapansutrile
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Dapansutrile is a potent, orally active and selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor. Dapansutrile has anti-inflammatory activity and decreases immune factor levels. Dapansutrile can be used for research of inflammatory diseases.
    Dapansutrile
  • HY-136555
    GSK717
    Inhibitor 99.88%
    GSK717 is a potent, selective NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) inhibitor. GSK717 inhibits muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-induced NOD2-mediated signaling, with an IC50 of 400 nM for MDP-stimulated IL-8 secretion in HEK293/hNOD2 cells.
    GSK717
  • HY-B0116
    Stavudine
    Inhibitor 99.67%
    Stavudine (d4T) is an orally active nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). Stavudine has activity against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Stavudine also inhibits the replication of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Stavudine reduces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and modulates Amyloid-β autophagy. Stavudine induces apoptosis.
    Stavudine
  • HY-132831
    Selnoflast
    Inhibitor 98.58%
    Selnoflast (RO-7486967) Formerly known as Somalix/RG6418/IZD334, Selnoflast is an orally available inhibitor of NLRP3. Selnoflast is used in research into systemic inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Selnoflast
  • HY-N0633
    Muscone
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Muscone is the main active monomer of traditional Chinese medicine musk. Muscone inhibits NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Muscone remarkably decreases the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6), and ultimately improves cardiac function and survival rate.
    Muscone
  • HY-144226
    NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3
    Inhibitor 98.00%
    NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3 (compound 59) is a potent inhibitor with differential species specific effects against NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis. NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3 shows inhibitory efficacy against pyroptosis in THP-1 macrophages stimulated with LPS/nigericin, with an IC50 of 0.077 ± 0.008 μM. NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3 disturbs the interaction of NLRP3 or AIM2 with the adaptor protein ASC and inhibited ASC oligomerization.
    NLRP3/AIM2-IN-3
  • HY-139396
    BMS-986299
    Agonist 99.95%
    BMS-986299 (compound 112) is a first-in-class NLRP3 inflammasome agonist with an EC50 of 1.28 μM. (patent WO2018152396A1).
    BMS-986299
  • HY-N0139
    Troxerutin
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a tri-hydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutins which can inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depress ER stress-mediated NOD activation.
    Troxerutin
  • HY-13682
    Mifamurtide
    ≥99.0%
    Mifamurtide (MTP-PE), an analog of the muramyl dipeptide (MDP), is a nonspecific immunomodulator by stimulating the immune response activating macrophages and monocytes. Mifamurtide is a specific ligand for NOD2 and acts as an insulin sensitizer. Mifamurtide has potential for use in rare disease and osteosarcoma research.
    Mifamurtide
  • HY-100691
    NOD-IN-1
    Inhibitor 99.70%
    NOD-IN-1 is a potent mixed inhibitor of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, NOD1 and NOD2, with IC50 of 5.74 μM and 6.45 μM, respectively.
    NOD-IN-1
Cat. No. Product Name / Synonyms Application Reactivity