1. Signaling Pathways
  2. Immunology/Inflammation
  3. Complement System

Complement System

The complement system, composed of more than 30 serum and cell surface components, is collaborating in recognition and elimination of pathogens as a part of both the innate and acquired immune systems. Once the complement system is activated, a chain of reactions involving proteolysis and assembly occurs, resulting in cleavage of the third complement component (C3). The cascade up to C3 cleavage is called the activation pathway. There are three activation pathways: the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways.

The complement cascade is a dual-edged sword, causing protection against bacterial and viral invasion by promoting phagocytosis and inflammation. Pathologically, complement can cause substantial damage to blood vessels (vasculitis), kidney basement membrane and attached endothelial and epithelial cells (nephritis), joint synovium (arthritis), and erythrocytes (hemolysis) if it is not adequately controlled.

Complement System Related Products (41):

Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity
  • HY-14648
    Dexamethasone
    Inhibitor 99.86%
    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. Dexamethasone also significantly decreases CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression on neutrophils, and CD11b and CD18 expression on monocytes. Dexamethasone is highly effective in the control of COVID-19 infection. Dexamethasone inhibits production of exosomes containing inflammatory microRNA-155 in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory responses.
  • HY-B0579
    Cyclosporin A
    Inhibitor ≥98.0%
    Cyclosporin A (Cyclosporine A) is an immunosuppressant which binds to the cyclophilin and inhibits phosphatase activity of calcineurin with an IC50 of 5 nM. Cyclosporin A also inhibits CD11a/CD18 adhesion.
  • HY-101502A
    SB290157 trifluoroacetate
    Antagonist 99.87%
    SB290157 trifluoroacetate is a potent and selective C3a receptor antagonist with an IC50 of 200 nM.
  • HY-10799
    EG00229
    Antagonist 98.89%
    EG00229 is a neuropilin 1 (NRP1) receptor antagonist. EG00229 selectively inhibits VEGF-A binding to NRP1 b1 domain with an IC50 of 3 μM, but has no effect on VEGFA binding to VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2.
  • HY-127105
    Iptacopan
    Inhibitor 99.86%
    Iptacopan (LNP023) is a first-in-class, orally bioavailable, highly potent and highly selective factor B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 10 nM. Iptacopan shows direct, reversible, and high-affinity binding to human factor B with a KD of 7.9 nM. Iptacopan targets the underlying cause of complement 3 glomerulopathy (C3G).
  • HY-138161
    JR14a
    Antagonist 98.52%
    JR14a is a potent thiophene antagonist of human complement C3a receptor. JR14a shows selectivity for the human C3a receptor over C5a receptor. JR14a can suppress C3aR-mediated inflammation.
  • HY-139588
    Vemircopan
    Inhibitor
    Vemircopan is a complement factor D inhibitor.
  • HY-N9481
    Lipoteichoic acid
    Activator
    Lipoteichoic acid, a cell wall component of Staphylococcus aureus, activates the complement system via C3 induction and CD55 inhibition.
  • HY-106178
    PMX-53
    Antagonist 98.85%
    PMX-53 (3D53) is a synthetic peptidic and a potent and orally active complement C5a receptor (CD88) antagonist with an IC50 of 20 nM. PMX-53 is also a low-affinity MrgX2 agonist that stimulates MrgX2-mediated mast cell degranulation. PMX-53 specifically binds to C5aR1 and does not bind to the second C5aR (C5L2) and C3aR. PMX-53 has anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic effects.
  • HY-117930
    Danicopan
    Inhibitor 99.91%
    Danicopan (ACH-4471), a selective and orally active small-molecule factor D inhibitor, shows high binding affinity to human Factor D with Kd value of 0.54 nM. Danicopan (ACH-4471) inhibits alternative pathway of complement (APC) activity, has potential to block the alternative pathway of complement in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS).
  • HY-15701B
    ADH-503
    Agonist ≥98.0%
    ADH-503 ((Z)-Leukadherin-1 choline) is an orally active and allosteric CD11b agonist. ADH-503 leads to the repolarization of tumor-associated macrophages, reduction in the number of tumor-infiltrating immunosuppressive myeloid cells, and enhances dendritic cell responses.
  • HY-110136A
    PMX 205 Trifluoroacetate
    Antagonist 98.01%
    PMX 205 Trifluoroacetate is a potent complement C5a receptor (C5aR; CD88) antagonist.
  • HY-P1717B
    AMY-101 acetate
    Inhibitor 99.93%
    AMY-101 acetate (Cp40 acetate), a peptidic inhibitor of the central complement component C3 (KD = 0.5 nM), inhibits naturally occurring periodontitis in non-human primates (NHPs). AMY-101 acetate (Cp40 acetate) exhibits a favorable anti-inflammatory activity in models with COVID-19 severe pneumonia with systemic hyper inflammation.
  • HY-112151A
    EG01377 dihydrochloride
    Inhibitor 98.21%
    EG01377 dihydrochloride is a potent, bioavailable and selective inhibitor of neuropilin-1 (NRP1), with a Kd of 1.32 μM, and IC50s of 609 nM for both NRP1-a1 and NRP1-b1. EG01377 dihydrochloride has antiangiogenic, antimigratory, and antitumor effects.
  • HY-15701
    Leukadherin-1
    Agonist ≥98.0%
    Leukadherin-1, a specific agonist of the leukocyte surface integrin CD11b/CD18, increases CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion to fibrinogen with an EC50 of 4 μM. Leukadherin-1 enhances leukocyte adhesion to ligands (such as ICAM-1) and vascular endothelium and thus reduces leukocyte transendothelial migration and influx to the injury sites. Leukadherin-1 suppresses innate inflammatory signaling.
  • HY-P1717A
    AMY-101 TFA
    Inhibitor 99.94%
    AMY-101 TFA (Cp40 TFA), a peptidic inhibitor of the central complement component C3 (KD = 0.5 nM), inhibits naturally occurring periodontitis in non-human primates (NHPs). AMY-101 (Cp40) exhibits a favorable anti-inflammatory activity in models with COVID-19 severe pneumonia with systemic hyper inflammation.
  • HY-50875
    BCX 1470 methanesulfonate
    Inhibitor 99.74%
    BCX 1470 methanesulfonate inhibits the esterolytic activity of factor D (IC50=96 nM) and C1s (IC50=1.6 nM), 3.4- and 200-fold better, respectively, than that of trypsin.
  • HY-P1663A
    ATWLPPR Peptide TFA
    Inhibitor 99.34%
    ATWLPPR Peptide TFA, a heptapeptide, acts as a selective neuropilin-1 inhibitor, inhibits VEGF165 binding to NRP-1, used in the research of angiogenesis. ATWLPPR Peptide TFA has potential in reducing the early retinal damage caused by diabetes.
  • HY-16992A
    W-54011
    Antagonist ≥98.0%
    W-54011 is a potent and orally active non-peptide C5a receptor antagonist. W-54011 inhibits the binding of 125I-labeled C5a to human neutrophils with a Ki value of 2.2 nM. W-54011 also inhibits C5a-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, chemotaxis, and generation of ROS in human neutrophils with IC50s of 3.1 nM, 2.7 nM, and 1.6 nM, respectively.
  • HY-127105A
    Iptacopan hydrochloride
    Inhibitor 99.93%
    LNP023 hydrochloride is an orally bioavailable, highly potent and highly selective factor B inhibitor. LNP023 shows direct, reversible, and high-affinity binding to human factor B with a KD of 7.9 nM. LNP023 inhibits factor B with an IC50 value of 10 nM.
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