1. Immunology/Inflammation
    Autophagy
    Anti-infection
  2. Glucocorticoid Receptor
    SARS-CoV
    Autophagy
    Complement System
    Mitophagy
    Bacterial
    Antibiotic
  3. Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone  (Synonyms: Hexadecadrol; Prednisolone F)

Cat. No.: HY-14648 Purity: 99.86%
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Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. Dexamethasone also significantly decreases CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression on neutrophils, and CD11b and CD18 expression on monocytes. Dexamethasone is highly effective in the control of COVID-19 infection. Dexamethasone inhibits production of exosomes containing inflammatory microRNA-155 in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory responses.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Dexamethasone Chemical Structure

Dexamethasone Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 50-02-2

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10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO USD 55 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
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Customer Review

Based on 99 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Other Forms of Dexamethasone:

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

82 Publications Citing Use of MCE Dexamethasone

IF
RT-PCR
WB
Proliferation Assay

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Oct;180:114145.  [Abstract]

    After C2C12 myotubes are incubated with Dexamethasone (DEX) and S-Rg3 for 24 h, myotube levels of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 are detected using Western blot analysis.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Oct;180:114145.  [Abstract]

    Translocation of FoxO3 after treatment with S-Rg3 in DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes was investigated by immunofluorescence staining.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Raw264.7 macrophages induced with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 6 h. Then cellular uptake of Cy5-labeled Dexamethasone (Dex)/OxiαCD NPs or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs is assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy at various times.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Raw264.7 cells are treated with various concentrations of blank NPs, free Dexamethasone (Dex), Dex/Oxi-αCD NPs, or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs for 24 h, the optical density values at 450 nm were measured and the cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Raw264.7 cells are treated with various concentrations of blank NPs, free Dexamethasone (Dex), Dex/Oxi-αCD NPs, or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs for 24 h, mRNA level of iRhom2 in Raw264.7 cells is detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Data are presented by the relative amount of mRNA normalized by GAPDH.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Western blot analysis of iRhom2, TNF-α, and BAFF expression in Raw264.7 cells treated with various concentrations of blank NPs, free Dexamethasone (Dex), Dex/Oxi-αCD NPs, or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs for 24 h.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Aug;13(4):2017-2030.  [Abstract]

    qRT‐PCR results show that DEX (DEX; 25 μg/g ; once a day; for 10 days)-induced myotube atrophy can increase the expression levels of MuRF1, Atrogin‐1, FoxO3a, SYISL, and miR‐205‐5p, decrease the expression levels of miR‐23a‐3p and miR‐103‐3p, but does not affect the expression level of SYNPO2.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Aug;13(4):2017-2030.  [Abstract]

    Western blotting results show that SYISL overexpression can further promote protein ubiquitination levels in Dexamethasone (DEX; 25 μg/g ; once a day; for 10 days)-induced muscular atrophy. Muscle atrophy is induced by intraperitoneal injection of DEX for 10 days in 3‐month‐old wild‐type and KO mice, respectively.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Aug;13(4):2017-2030.  [Abstract]

    Representative photographs of H&E and Lamin immunofluorescence staining for WT and KO TA muscles. Quantification of five independent experiments shows that knockout of SYISL alleviates muscle weight loss caused by Dexamethasone (DEX; 25 μg/g ; once a day; for 10 days)-induced muscle atrophy.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Carbohydr Polym. 1 January 2023, 120179.

    Western blotting analysis of Itgb2 levels in Dexamethasone (100 nM; for 1 hour)-treated MODE-K cells.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Carbohydr Polym. 1 January 2023, 120179.

    mRNA levels of Itgb2 in Dexamethasone (100 nM; for 1 hour)-treated MODE-K cells.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Carbohydr Polym. 1 January 2023, 120179.

    Immunofluorescence analysis of Itgb2 in Dexamethasone (100 nM; for 1 hour)-treated MODE-K cells.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Br J Pharmacol. 2021 Aug;178(15):2976-2997.  [Abstract]

    Primary microglial cells incubated with Protopanaxadiol (100 μM), Dexamethasone (100 nM) or Dexamethasone-BSA (10 nM) show remarkable dynorphin A expression. Pretreatment with Dexamethasone-21-mesylate for 0.5 h completely abolished Protopanaxadiol-, Dexamethasone- or Dexamethasone-BSA-stimulated dynorphin A expression.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    The GR expression of 4T1 cells treated with Dexamethasone (100 nM)/Mifepristone for 48 h.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    The migration assay of 4T1 cells in different condition. 4T1 cells were pretreated with 100 nM Dexamethasone (Dex) for 48 h and then are used for Transwell.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    For in situ treatment in the 4T1 tumor model, Dexamethasone (Dex; 3 mg/kg) is performed every three days by gavage twice/day. The expression of Nedd4l, p-Nedd4l, Smad2 and p-Smad2 after SGK1 knockout.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MCE. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    4T1 cells are treated with Dexamethasone (Dex; 100 nM)/GSK650394 in vitro for 48 h before inoculation via intravenous injection.
    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    • Customer Review

    Description

    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist. Dexamethasone also significantly decreases CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression on neutrophils, and CD11b and CD18 expression on monocytes. Dexamethasone is highly effective in the control of COVID-19 infection. Dexamethasone inhibits production of exosomes containing inflammatory microRNA-155 in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory responses.

    IC50 & Target

    Glucocorticoid receptor[1]

    In Vitro

    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) regulates several transcription factors, including activator protein-1, nuclear factor-AT, and nuclear factor-kB, leading to the activation and repression of key genes involved in the inflammatory response[1].
    Dexamethasone potently inhibits granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release from A549 cells with EC50 of 2.2 nM. Dexamethasone (EC50=36 nM) induces transcription of the β2-receptor is found to correlate with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA binding and occurred at 10-100 fold higher concentrations than the inhibition of GM-CSF release. Dexamethasone (IC50=0.5 nM) inhibits a 3×κB (NF-κB, IκBα, and I-κBβ), which is associated with inhibition of GM-CSF release[2].

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    In Vivo

    It has previously been reported that treatment with Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) at a dose of 2×5 mg/kg efficiently inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. In our experimental system, treatment with a single dose of Dexamethasone 10 mg/kg (i.p.) significantly decreases recruitment of granulocytes as well as spontaneous production of oxygen radicals compared with animals expose to LPS and injected with solvent alone (saline). The effects are statistically significant when administered both 1 h before and 1 h after inhalation of LPS. The number of granulocytes in BALF decreased to levels comparable to healthy animals (given an aerosol of water)[3].
    Rats treated with Dexamethasone consume less food and weighed less than control rats. Treated rats also weigh less than pair-fed animals though their food intake is similar. Five days of Dexamethasone injection result in a significant increase in both the liver mass (+42%) and the liver to body weight ratio (+65%). The wet weight of gastrocnemius muscle decreases 20% after 5 days of treatment, but it remains unaffected relative to body weight (g/100 g body weight), indicating that muscle weight loss paralleled body weight loss[4].

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Clinical Trial
    Molecular Weight

    392.46

    Formula

    C22H29FO5

    CAS No.
    SMILES
    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

    Storage

    4°C, protect from light

    *In solvent : -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month (protect from light)

    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : 250 mg/mL (637.01 mM; ultrasonic and warming and heat to 60°C)

    Ethanol : 8.33 mg/mL (21.23 mM; Need ultrasonic)

    Preparing
    Stock Solutions
    Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 2.5480 mL 12.7402 mL 25.4803 mL
    5 mM 0.5096 mL 2.5480 mL 5.0961 mL
    10 mM 0.2548 mL 1.2740 mL 2.5480 mL
    *Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
    In Vivo:
    • 1.

      Add each solvent one by one:  0.5% CMC-Na/saline water

      Solubility: 18.18 mg/mL (46.32 mM); Suspended solution; Need ultrasonic

    • 2.

      Add each solvent one by one:  5% DMSO    95% (20% SBE-β-CD in saline)

      Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (6.37 mM); Clear solution

    • 3.

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% saline

      Solubility: ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (5.30 mM); Clear solution

    • 4.

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in saline)

      Solubility: ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (5.30 mM); Clear solution

    • 5.

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% corn oil

      Solubility: ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (5.30 mM); Clear solution

    *All of the co-solvents are available by MCE.
    Purity & Documentation

    Purity: 99.86%

    References
    Animal Administration
    [3][4]

    Mice[3]
    Female C57Bl/6JBom mice (age 10-12 weeks) are used in all experiments. Dexamethasone is administered as a single injection of 1 or 10 mg/kg. Dexamethasone is dissolved in saline and 400 μL are injected intraperitoneally, either 1 h before or 1 h after LPS exposure. In one experiment, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (100 and 500 mg/kg) is injected successively every 4•5 h, starting 1 h before challenge (five injections in total). A control group of LPS-exposed animals are injected intraperitoneally with solvent alone (saline). Intratracheal administration is performed by instillation of 100 μL NAC (50, 100 or 500 mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) into the lungs of mice.
    Rats[4]
    Male Sprague-Dawley rats are used.Dexamethasone-treated rats are injected intraperitoneally once daily with Dexamethasone (1.5 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days and are allowed to feed ad libitum. The Dexamethasone dose (1.5 mg/kg/day) and the duration of treatment (5 days) are specifically chosen as this treatment induced a reproducible and marked catabolic state. Control rats received no treatment and are fed ad libitum. In order to take into account the decrease in food intake induced by Dexamethasone treatment, a third group of pair-fed rats are used. These rats are provided with the same amount of food as Dexamethasone-injected rats and are treated with a daily isovolumic intraperitoneal injection of NaCl (0.9%) for 5 days. After the final injection of Dexamethasone or NaCl, the animals are fasted overnight prior to being killed by decapitation.

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References
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    • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

      Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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