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  4. Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone  (Synonyms: Hexadecadrol; Prednisolone F)

Cat. No.: HY-14648 Purity: 99.86%
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Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, apoptosis inducer, and common disease inducer in experimental animals, constructing models of muscle atrophy, hypertension, and depression. Dexamethasone can inhibit the production of inflammatory miRNA-155 exosomes in macrophages and significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory factors in neutrophils and monocytes. Dexamethasone also has potential for use in COVID-19 research.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Dexamethasone Chemical Structure

Dexamethasone Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 50-02-2

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10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO
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Customer Review

Based on 141 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

124 Publications Citing Use of MCE Dexamethasone

Proliferation Assay
RT-PCR
WB
IF

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Carbohydr Polym. 1 January 2023, 120179.

    Immunofluorescence analysis of Itgb2 in Dexamethasone (100 nM; for 1 hour)-treated MODE-K cells.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Carbohydr Polym. 1 January 2023, 120179.

    mRNA levels of Itgb2 in Dexamethasone (100 nM; for 1 hour)-treated MODE-K cells.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Carbohydr Polym. 1 January 2023, 120179.

    Western blotting analysis of Itgb2 levels in Dexamethasone (100 nM; for 1 hour)-treated MODE-K cells.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Aug;13(4):2017-2030.  [Abstract]

    qRT‐PCR results show that DEX (DEX; 25 μg/g ; once a day; for 10 days)-induced myotube atrophy can increase the expression levels of MuRF1, Atrogin‐1, FoxO3a, SYISL, and miR‐205‐5p, decrease the expression levels of miR‐23a‐3p and miR‐103‐3p, but does not affect the expression level of SYNPO2.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Aug;13(4):2017-2030.  [Abstract]

    Western blotting results show that SYISL overexpression can further promote protein ubiquitination levels in Dexamethasone (DEX; 25 μg/g ; once a day; for 10 days)-induced muscular atrophy. Muscle atrophy is induced by intraperitoneal injection of DEX for 10 days in 3‐month‐old wild‐type and KO mice, respectively.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2022 Aug;13(4):2017-2030.  [Abstract]

    Representative photographs of H&E and Lamin immunofluorescence staining for WT and KO TA muscles. Quantification of five independent experiments shows that knockout of SYISL alleviates muscle weight loss caused by Dexamethasone (DEX; 25 μg/g ; once a day; for 10 days)-induced muscle atrophy.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    4T1 cells are treated with Dexamethasone (Dex; 100 nM)/GSK650394 in vitro for 48 h before inoculation via intravenous injection.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    For in situ treatment in the 4T1 tumor model, Dexamethasone (Dex; 3 mg/kg) is performed every three days by gavage twice/day. The expression of Nedd4l, p-Nedd4l, Smad2 and p-Smad2 after SGK1 knockout.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    The GR expression of 4T1 cells treated with Dexamethasone (100 nM)/Mifepristone for 48 h.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Oncogene. 2021 Sep;40(35):5367-5378.  [Abstract]

    The migration assay of 4T1 cells in different condition. 4T1 cells were pretreated with 100 nM Dexamethasone (Dex) for 48 h and then are used for Transwell.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Br J Pharmacol. 2021 Aug;178(15):2976-2997.  [Abstract]

    Primary microglial cells incubated with Protopanaxadiol (100 μM), Dexamethasone (100 nM) or Dexamethasone-BSA (10 nM) show remarkable dynorphin A expression. Pretreatment with Dexamethasone-21-mesylate for 0.5 h completely abolished Protopanaxadiol-, Dexamethasone- or Dexamethasone-BSA-stimulated dynorphin A expression.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Raw264.7 cells are treated with various concentrations of blank NPs, free Dexamethasone (Dex), Dex/Oxi-αCD NPs, or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs for 24 h, the optical density values at 450 nm were measured and the cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Raw264.7 cells are treated with various concentrations of blank NPs, free Dexamethasone (Dex), Dex/Oxi-αCD NPs, or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs for 24 h, mRNA level of iRhom2 in Raw264.7 cells is detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Data are presented by the relative amount of mRNA normalized by GAPDH.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Raw264.7 macrophages induced with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 6 h. Then cellular uptake of Cy5-labeled Dexamethasone (Dex)/OxiαCD NPs or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs is assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy at various times.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biomaterials. 2020 Feb;232:119730.  [Abstract]

    Western blot analysis of iRhom2, TNF-α, and BAFF expression in Raw264.7 cells treated with various concentrations of blank NPs, free Dexamethasone (Dex), Dex/Oxi-αCD NPs, or Dex/FA-Oxi-αCD NPs for 24 h.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Oct;180:114145.  [Abstract]

    Translocation of FoxO3 after treatment with S-Rg3 in DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes was investigated by immunofluorescence staining.

    Dexamethasone purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biochem Pharmacol. 2020 Oct;180:114145.  [Abstract]

    After C2C12 myotubes are incubated with Dexamethasone (DEX) and S-Rg3 for 24 h, myotube levels of MuRF1 and atrogin-1 are detected using Western blot analysis.

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    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    • Customer Review

    Description

    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) is a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, apoptosis inducer, and common disease inducer in experimental animals, constructing models of muscle atrophy, hypertension, and depression. Dexamethasone can inhibit the production of inflammatory miRNA-155 exosomes in macrophages and significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory factors in neutrophils and monocytes. Dexamethasone also has potential for use in COVID-19 research[1][2][3][4].

    IC50 & Target

    Glucocorticoid receptor[1]

    In Vitro

    Dexamethasone (Hexadecadrol) regulates several transcription factors, including activator protein-1, nuclear factor-AT, and nuclear factor-kB, leading to the activation and repression of key genes involved in the inflammatory response[1].
    Dexamethasone potently inhibits granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) release from A549 cells with EC50 of 2.2 nM. Dexamethasone (EC50=36 nM) induces transcription of the β2-receptor is found to correlate with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) DNA binding and occurred at 10-100 fold higher concentrations than the inhibition of GM-CSF release. Dexamethasone (IC50=0.5 nM) inhibits a 3×κB (NF-κB, IκBα, and I-κBβ), which is associated with inhibition of GM-CSF release[2].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    In Vivo

    Based on blood and multi-tissue concentration-time profiles of Dexamethasone (DEX), no significant sex differences were found in its tissue distribution. Blood cell to plasma partitioning (0.664) and plasma free fraction (0.175) were moderate, with widespread distribution in the liver (Kp=6.76). Possibly due to P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux, the concentration of DEX in the brain is very low compared to the expected high permeability[5].
    Dexamethasone (DEX) can be used in animal modeling to construct models of muscle atrophy, hypertension and depression.

    1. Induction of muscle atrophy[6][7]
    Background
    Glucocorticoids are important mediators of skeletal muscle protein degradation and upregulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Dexamethasone induces tibialis anterior muscle protein degradation by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor, resulting in muscle atrophy.
    Specific Mmodeling Methods
    Mice: C57BL/6 • male • 6-week-old
    Administration: 5 mg/kg • ip • once daily for 2 weeks
    Modeling Indicators
    Molecular changes: Increased indicators: C2C12 ubiquitin ligase, MuRF1, Atrogin-1, Cbl-b, p-Foxo1, p-Foxo3a. Resulted C2C12 myotube protein degradation, and Glucocorticoid receptor translocation to the nucleus
    Phenotypic observation: Decreased indicators: The weight of the anterior muscles, gastrocnemius, quadriceps and soleus muscles. The ratio of skeletal muscle to body weight decreases.
    Correlated Product(s): Betamethasone (HY-13570)
    Opposite Product(s): Glabridin (HY-N0393)
    2. Induction of hypertension[8][9]
    Background
    The underlying mechanisms that induce hypertension (HT) are unknown.
    Specific Modeling Methods
    Rat: Sprague-Dawley • Male • 200-300 g
    Administration: 20 μg • sc • once daily from days 5 to 16 • control rats: saline with 0.1 mL/100 g/day from days 1 to 16 (po) or 0.2 mL/rat/day (sc).
    Dog: 10.1-19.1 kg • average=13.7 kg
    Administration: 0.5 mg/kg • po • once daily for 10 days
    Modeling Indicators
    b>Hemodynamics:MAP, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, TPR levels increased in central hemodynamics. Total peripheral resistance, blood pressure, atrial natriuretic peptide, and the pressor response to norepinephrine, are significantly increased in Systemic and renal hemodynamics.
    Behavior: The dog showed obvious natriuresis and diuresis.
    Opposite Product(s): Saralasin (HY-P0205); Prazosin (HY-B0193)
    3. Induction of depressive behavior[10][11]
    Background
    Astrocytes are a key feature of major depressive disorder (MD), and reduced expression by glucocorticoids results in reduced astrocyte numbers. Long-term treatment with Dexamethasone can cause a series of depression-like symptoms in rodents.
    Specific Modeling Methods
    Rat: Sprague-Dawley • Male • 200-250 g
    Administration: 1 mg/kg • po • once daily every other day for 5 months
    Note
    (1) Prepare a 3% (w/v) treatment solution and filter through a 0.45 μm cellulose acetate filter.
    (2) Rats should not be exposed to any other water source for 4 days before starting treatment.
    (3) On the 4th day, change the treatment solution to water and feed for 3 days to allow the mice to recover temporarily. Weigh and conduct behavioral experiments on day 7.
    Mice: C57BL/6 • Male • 9-10 weeks old • 23-25 g
    Administration: 4 mg/kg • ip • once dailly for 21 days
    Modeling Indicators
    Metabolism changes: Serum cortisol levels in rats ↑.
    Behavior: Immobility time during the forced swim test (FST) &uarr. Preference for sucrose &darr in the sucrose preference test.
    Opposite Product(s): Amitriptyline (HY-B0527)

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Clinical Trial
    Molecular Weight

    392.46

    Formula

    C22H29FO5

    CAS No.
    Appearance

    Solid

    Color

    White to off-white

    SMILES

    O=C1C=C[C@@]2(C)C(CC[C@]3([H])[C@]2(F)[C@@H](O)C[C@@]4(C)[C@@]3([H])C[C@@H](C)[C@@]4(C(CO)=O)O)=C1

    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

    Storage

    4°C, protect from light

    *In solvent : -80°C, 1 year; -20°C, 6 months (protect from light)

    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : 250 mg/mL (637.01 mM; ultrasonic and warming and heat to 60°C; Hygroscopic DMSO has a significant impact on the solubility of product, please use newly opened DMSO)

    Ethanol : 8.33 mg/mL (21.23 mM; Need ultrasonic)

    Preparing
    Stock Solutions
    Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 2.5480 mL 12.7402 mL 25.4803 mL
    5 mM 0.5096 mL 2.5480 mL 5.0961 mL
    View the Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 1 year; -20°C, 6 months (protect from light). When stored at -80°C, please use it within 1 year. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 6 months.

    • Molarity Calculator

    • Dilution Calculator

    Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

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    Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

    This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

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    In Vivo:

    Select the appropriate dissolution method based on your experimental animal and administration route.

    For the following dissolution methods, please ensure to first prepare a clear stock solution using an In Vitro approach and then sequentially add co-solvents:
    To ensure reliable experimental results, the clarified stock solution can be appropriately stored based on storage conditions. As for the working solution for in vivo experiments, it is recommended to prepare freshly and use it on the same day.
    The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

    • Protocol 1

      Add each solvent one by one:  5% DMSO    95% (20% SBE-β-CD in Saline)

      Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (6.37 mM); Clear solution

    • Protocol 2

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% Saline

      Solubility: ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (5.30 mM); Clear solution

      This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

      Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (20.8 mg/mL) to 400 μL PEG300, and mix evenly; then add 50 μL Tween-80 and mix evenly; then add 450 μL Saline to adjust the volume to 1 mL.

      Preparation of Saline: Dissolve 0.9 g sodium chloride in ddH₂O and dilute to 100 mL to obtain a clear Saline solution.

    For the following dissolution methods, please prepare the working solution directly. It is recommended to prepare fresh solutions and use them promptly within a short period of time.
    The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

    • Protocol 1

      Add each solvent one by one:  0.5% CMC-Na/saline water

      Solubility: 18.18 mg/mL (46.32 mM); Suspended solution; Need ultrasonic

    In Vivo Dissolution Calculator
    Please enter the basic information of animal experiments:

    Dosage

    mg/kg

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    g

    Dosing volume
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    μL

    Number of animals

    Recommended: Prepare an additional quantity of animals to account for potential losses during experiments.
    Please enter your animal formula composition:
    %
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    Recommended: Keep the proportion of DMSO in working solution below 2% if your animal is weak.
    The co-solvents required include: DMSO, . All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE). , Tween 80. All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Calculation results:
    Working solution concentration: mg/mL
    Method for preparing stock solution: mg drug dissolved in μL  DMSO (Stock solution concentration: mg/mL).

    *In solvent : -80°C, 1 year; -20°C, 6 months (protect from light)

    The concentration of the stock solution you require exceeds the measured solubility. The following solution is for reference only. If necessary, please contact MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Method for preparing in vivo working solution for animal experiments: Take μL DMSO stock solution, add μL . μL , mix evenly, next add μL Tween 80, mix evenly, then add μL Saline.
     If the continuous dosing period exceeds half a month, please choose this protocol carefully.
    Please ensure that the stock solution in the first step is dissolved to a clear state, and add co-solvents in sequence. You can use ultrasonic heating (ultrasonic cleaner, recommended frequency 20-40 kHz), vortexing, etc. to assist dissolution.
    Purity & Documentation

    Purity: 99.86%

    References
    Animal Administration
    [3][4]

    Mice[3]
    Female C57Bl/6JBom mice (age 10-12 weeks) are used in all experiments. Dexamethasone is administered as a single injection of 1 or 10 mg/kg. Dexamethasone is dissolved in saline and 400 μL are injected intraperitoneally, either 1 h before or 1 h after LPS exposure. In one experiment, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (100 and 500 mg/kg) is injected successively every 4•5 h, starting 1 h before challenge (five injections in total). A control group of LPS-exposed animals are injected intraperitoneally with solvent alone (saline). Intratracheal administration is performed by instillation of 100 μL NAC (50, 100 or 500 mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) into the lungs of mice.
    Rats[4]
    Male Sprague-Dawley rats are used.Dexamethasone-treated rats are injected intraperitoneally once daily with Dexamethasone (1.5 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days and are allowed to feed ad libitum. The Dexamethasone dose (1.5 mg/kg/day) and the duration of treatment (5 days) are specifically chosen as this treatment induced a reproducible and marked catabolic state. Control rats received no treatment and are fed ad libitum. In order to take into account the decrease in food intake induced by Dexamethasone treatment, a third group of pair-fed rats are used. These rats are provided with the same amount of food as Dexamethasone-injected rats and are treated with a daily isovolumic intraperitoneal injection of NaCl (0.9%) for 5 days. After the final injection of Dexamethasone or NaCl, the animals are fasted overnight prior to being killed by decapitation.

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References

    Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 1 year; -20°C, 6 months (protect from light). When stored at -80°C, please use it within 1 year. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 6 months.

    Optional Solvent Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 25 mg
    Ethanol / DMSO 1 mM 2.5480 mL 12.7402 mL 25.4803 mL 63.7008 mL
    5 mM 0.5096 mL 2.5480 mL 5.0961 mL 12.7402 mL
    10 mM 0.2548 mL 1.2740 mL 2.5480 mL 6.3701 mL
    15 mM 0.1699 mL 0.8493 mL 1.6987 mL 4.2467 mL
    20 mM 0.1274 mL 0.6370 mL 1.2740 mL 3.1850 mL
    DMSO 25 mM 0.1019 mL 0.5096 mL 1.0192 mL 2.5480 mL
    30 mM 0.0849 mL 0.4247 mL 0.8493 mL 2.1234 mL
    40 mM 0.0637 mL 0.3185 mL 0.6370 mL 1.5925 mL
    50 mM 0.0510 mL 0.2548 mL 0.5096 mL 1.2740 mL
    60 mM 0.0425 mL 0.2123 mL 0.4247 mL 1.0617 mL
    80 mM 0.0319 mL 0.1593 mL 0.3185 mL 0.7963 mL
    100 mM 0.0255 mL 0.1274 mL 0.2548 mL 0.6370 mL
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