1. Academic Validation
  2. Tenovin-6 impairs autophagy by inhibiting autophagic flux

Tenovin-6 impairs autophagy by inhibiting autophagic flux

  • Cell Death Dis. 2017 Feb 9;8(2):e2608. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2017.25.
Hongfeng Yuan 1 Brandon Tan 1 Shou-Jiang Gao 1


  • 1 Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Tenovin-6 has attracted significant interest because it activates p53 and inhibits sirtuins. It has anti-neoplastic effects on multiple hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Tenovin-6 was recently shown to impair the Autophagy pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and pediatric soft tissue sarcoma cells. However, whether tenovin-6 has a general inhibitory effect on Autophagy and whether there is any involvement with SIRT1 and p53, both of which are regulators of the Autophagy pathway, remain unclear. In this study, we have demonstrated that tenovin-6 increases microtubule-associated protein 1 LIGHT chain 3 (LC3-II) level in diverse cell types in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, the increase of LC3-II by tenovin-6 is caused by inhibition of the classical Autophagy pathway via impairing lysosomal function without affecting the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Furthermore, we have revealed that tenovin-6 activation of p53 is cell type dependent, and tenovin-6 inhibition of Autophagy is not dependent on its regulatory functions on p53 and SIRT1. Our results have shown that tenovin-6 is a potent Autophagy inhibitor, and raised the precaution in interpreting results where tenovin-6 is used as an inhibitor of SIRT1.