1. Academic Validation
  2. Raloxifene nanomicelles reduce the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

Raloxifene nanomicelles reduce the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

  • J Drug Target. 2016;24(5):441-9. doi: 10.3109/1061186X.2015.1086360.
Tara Pritchard 1 Rhonda J Rosengren 1 Khaled Greish 1 Sebastien Taurin 1


  • 1 a Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology , University of Otago , Dunedin , New Zealand.

Background: Castrate-resistant prostate Cancer (CRPC) patients are characterised by a 5-year relative survival rate of ∼25-33%. Recently, our laboratory encapsulated a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, into poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA-raloxifene), which demonstrated superior in vitro cytotoxicity compared with free drug against several CRPC cell lines.

Purpose: To validate SMA-raloxifene for the management of CRPC using a mouse xenograft model.

Methods: The internalisation and retention of micellar and free raloxifene in vitro were measured by HPLC. A PC3-CRPC xenograft model was used to compare the biodistribution of both raloxifene formulations, as well as their effect on tumour progression where mice received free raloxifene (1 or 5 mg/kg, i.v.) or SMA-raloxifene (1 mg/kg, i.v.) weekly for 4 weeks.

Results: SMA-raloxifene exhibited 75% higher intracellular content compared to free drug after 48 h in PC3 cells. Biodistribution of raloxifene was 69% higher in tumours following SMA-raloxifene compared with free raloxifene. Weekly administration of 1 mg/kg free raloxifene reduced tumour progression by 20% after 4 weeks, whereas 1 mg/kg SMA-raloxifene and 5 mg/kg free raloxifene reduced progression by 40%.

Conclusion: Encapsulation of raloxifene increased its therapeutic potential for the management of CRPC.


Biodistribution; castrate resistant prostate cancer; enhanced permeability and retention effect; nanomedicine; raloxifene.