1. Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
  2. Endogenous Metabolite
  3. Paraxanthine

Paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, provides protection against Dopaminergic cell death via stimulation of Ryanodine Receptor Channels.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

Paraxanthine Chemical Structure

Paraxanthine Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 611-59-6

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Based on 1 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Other Forms of Paraxanthine:

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

1 Publications Citing Use of MCE Paraxanthine

  • Biological Activity

  • Purity & Documentation

  • References

  • Customer Review

Description

Paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, provides protection against Dopaminergic cell death via stimulation of Ryanodine Receptor Channels.

IC50 & Target[1]

Microbial Metabolite

 

Ryanodine Receptor Channels

 

Human Endogenous Metabolite

 

In Vitro

When Paraxanthine (PX) is applied to the cultures for a prolonged period, the number of TH+neurons is augmented in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of Paraxanthine, already significant at 100 μM, increases gradually and remains optimal between 800 and 1000 μM, at 10 DIV. Counts of TH+neurons performs at different stages of maturation of the cultures indicate that Paraxanthine most likely prevents DA cell loss. GDNF, a prototypical trophic factor for DA neurons, is only slightly more effective than 800 μM Paraxanthine in rescuing DA neurons after 10 and 16 DIV when used at an optimal concentration of 20 ng/mL. About 80% of caffeine is N3-demethylated to form Paraxanthine, Unlike Paraxanthine, caffeine is poorly effective in protecting DA neurons from death For example, at a concentration of 800 μM, caffeine produces only a modest 40% increase in the number of TH+ cells at 10 DIV, whereas the same concentration of Paraxanthine optimally promotes DA cell survival (169% increase)[1].

MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

Molecular Weight

180.17

Formula

C7H8N4O2

CAS No.
Appearance

Solid

Color

White to off-white

SMILES

O=C(N1C)NC2=C(N(C)C=N2)C1=O

Structure Classification
Initial Source
Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Storage
Powder -20°C 3 years
4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
-20°C 1 month
Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

DMSO : 25 mg/mL (138.76 mM; ultrasonic and warming and heat to 70°C; Hygroscopic DMSO has a significant impact on the solubility of product, please use newly opened DMSO)

Preparing
Stock Solutions
Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 5.5503 mL 27.7516 mL 55.5031 mL
5 mM 1.1101 mL 5.5503 mL 11.1006 mL
View the Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

* Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 6 months. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 month.

  • Molarity Calculator

  • Dilution Calculator

Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

Mass
=
Concentration
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Volume
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Molecular Weight *

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

Concentration (start)

C1

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Volume (start)

V1

=
Concentration (final)

C2

×
Volume (final)

V2

In Vivo:

Select the appropriate dissolution method based on your experimental animal and administration route.

For the following dissolution methods, please ensure to first prepare a clear stock solution using an In Vitro approach and then sequentially add co-solvents:
To ensure reliable experimental results, the clarified stock solution can be appropriately stored based on storage conditions. As for the working solution for in vivo experiments, it is recommended to prepare freshly and use it on the same day.
The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

  • Protocol 1

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% Saline

    Solubility: ≥ 1.56 mg/mL (8.66 mM); Clear solution

    This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 1.56 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

    Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (15.6 mg/mL) to 400 μL PEG300, and mix evenly; then add 50 μL Tween-80 and mix evenly; then add 450 μL Saline to adjust the volume to 1 mL.

    Preparation of Saline: Dissolve 0.9 g sodium chloride in ddH₂O and dilute to 100 mL to obtain a clear Saline solution.
  • Protocol 2

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in Saline)

    Solubility: ≥ 1.56 mg/mL (8.66 mM); Clear solution

    This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 1.56 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

    Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (15.6 mg/mL) to 900 μL 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline, and mix evenly.

    Preparation of 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline (4°C, storage for one week): 2 g SBE-β-CD powder is dissolved in 10 mL Saline, completely dissolve until clear.
In Vivo Dissolution Calculator
Please enter the basic information of animal experiments:

Dosage

mg/kg

Animal weight
(per animal)

g

Dosing volume
(per animal)

μL

Number of animals

Recommended: Prepare an additional quantity of animals to account for potential losses during experiments.
Please enter your animal formula composition:
%
DMSO +
+
%
Tween-80 +
%
Saline
Recommended: Keep the proportion of DMSO in working solution below 2% if your animal is weak.
The co-solvents required include: DMSO, . All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE). , Tween 80. All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE).
Calculation results:
Working solution concentration: mg/mL
Method for preparing stock solution: mg drug dissolved in μL  DMSO (Stock solution concentration: mg/mL).
The concentration of the stock solution you require exceeds the measured solubility. The following solution is for reference only. If necessary, please contact MedChemExpress (MCE).
Method for preparing in vivo working solution for animal experiments: Take μL DMSO stock solution, add μL . μL , mix evenly, next add μL Tween 80, mix evenly, then add μL Saline.
 If the continuous dosing period exceeds half a month, please choose this protocol carefully.
Please ensure that the stock solution in the first step is dissolved to a clear state, and add co-solvents in sequence. You can use ultrasonic heating (ultrasonic cleaner, recommended frequency 20-40 kHz), vortexing, etc. to assist dissolution.
Purity & Documentation

Purity: 99.97%

References

Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

* Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 6 months. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 month.

Optional Solvent Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 25 mg
DMSO 1 mM 5.5503 mL 27.7516 mL 55.5031 mL 138.7578 mL
5 mM 1.1101 mL 5.5503 mL 11.1006 mL 27.7516 mL
10 mM 0.5550 mL 2.7752 mL 5.5503 mL 13.8758 mL
15 mM 0.3700 mL 1.8501 mL 3.7002 mL 9.2505 mL
20 mM 0.2775 mL 1.3876 mL 2.7752 mL 6.9379 mL
25 mM 0.2220 mL 1.1101 mL 2.2201 mL 5.5503 mL
30 mM 0.1850 mL 0.9251 mL 1.8501 mL 4.6253 mL
40 mM 0.1388 mL 0.6938 mL 1.3876 mL 3.4689 mL
50 mM 0.1110 mL 0.5550 mL 1.1101 mL 2.7752 mL
60 mM 0.0925 mL 0.4625 mL 0.9251 mL 2.3126 mL
80 mM 0.0694 mL 0.3469 mL 0.6938 mL 1.7345 mL
100 mM 0.0555 mL 0.2775 mL 0.5550 mL 1.3876 mL
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Help & FAQs
  • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

    Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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Paraxanthine
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HY-W016498
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