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  5. I-TAC/CXCL11
  6. I-TAC/CXCL11 Protein, Human (HEK293)

I-TAC/CXCL11 Protein, Human (HEK293)

Cat. No.: HY-P7228
COA Handling Instructions

CXCL11, also known as IFN-inducible T-cell α-chemoattractant (I-TAC), belongs to the ELR-negative CXC chemokine family. CXCL11 is produced by a variety of cells including leukocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells upon stimulation with interferons (IFNs). CXCL11 signals through CXCR3. CXCL11 is associated with pleiotropic functions including chemotactic migration, regulation of cell proliferation and self-renewal, increasing cell adhesion, and modulation of angiostatic effects. I-TAC/CXCL11 Protein, Human (HEK293) consists of 73 amino acids (F22-F94) and is expressed in HEK293 cells.

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Description

CXCL11, also known as IFN-inducible T-cell α-chemoattractant (I-TAC), belongs to the ELR-negative CXC chemokine family. CXCL11 is produced by a variety of cells including leukocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells upon stimulation with interferons (IFNs). CXCL11 signals through CXCR3. CXCL11 is associated with pleiotropic functions including chemotactic migration, regulation of cell proliferation and self-renewal, increasing cell adhesion, and modulation of angiostatic effects[1][2]. I-TAC/CXCL11 Protein, Human (HEK293) consists of 73 amino acids (F22-F94) and is expressed in HEK293 cells.

Background

CXCL11 is mainly expressed in the lung, pancreas, thymus, peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, and liver and is expressed at lesser levels in the intestine, placenta, and prostate. CXCL11 is located on human chromosome 4 and is mainly secreted by cancer cells, leukocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. CXCL11 attracts activated lymphocytes and NK cells to inflamed tissue and to tumors and inhibits the generation of novel blood vessels essential for tumor growth and tissue repair[1][2].
CXCL11 which can bind to two different chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CXCR7. CXCL11 is characterized by the presence of 1 amino acid in between the 2 NH2-terminal cysteines. CXCL11 is usually expressed at low levels in homeostatic conditions, but is upregulated during cancer or infectious disease processes. CXCL11 is mainly induced by IFN-γ and IFN-β and is weakly induced by IFN-α. CXCL11 has potent chemoattractant activity for IL-2 activated T cells and transfected cell lines expressing CXCR3, but not freshly isolated T cells, neutrophils or monocytes. Simultaneous stimulation of fibroblasts or endothelial cells with IFN-γ and interleukin-1β or the TLR3 ligand double-stranded RNA resulted in a synergistic increase of CXCL11 production. In leukocytes, bacterial LPS and PGN even inhibited interferon-induced CXCL11 production. CXCL11 attracts activated T-helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, CXCL11 can bind to CXCR7, which is associated with invasiveness and reduces apoptosis of tumor cells[1][2].
The diverse functions of CXCL11 include inhibiting angiogenesis, affecting the proliferation of different cell types, playing a role in fibroblast directed carcinoma invasion, increasing adhesion properties, suppressing M2 macrophage polarization, and facilitating the migration of certain immune cells[1][2].

In Vitro

Recombinant human CXCL11 (100 ng/mL) promotes proliferation and migration of IGROV-1 cells via CXCR3. Recombinant human CXCL11 (100 ng/mL; 5-60 min) increases the phosphorylated p44/42 and phosphorylated Akt in ovarian cancer cells[3].

Biological Activity

1.The ED50 is <0.5 μg/mL as measured by CHO-K1/Gα15/hCXCR3 cells (human Gα15 and human CXCR3 stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells).
2.The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using activated human T-lymphocytes. The ED50 for this effect is ≤2.379 ng/mL in the presence of 1ng/mL human IL-2, corresponding to a specific activity is ≥4.203×105 U/mg.

  • The biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using activated human T-lymphocytes. The ED50 for this effect is 2.251 ng/mL in the presence of 1ng/mL human IL-2, corresponding to a specific activity is 4.442×105 U/mg.
Species

Human

Source

HEK293

Tag

Tag Free

Accession

O14625 (F22-F94)

Gene ID
Molecular Construction
N-term
CXCL11 (F22-F94)
Accession # O14625
C-term
Synonyms
rHuI-TAC/CXCL11; C-X-C motif chemokine 11; Beta-R1; H174; IP-9; SCYB11
AA Sequence

FPMFKRGRCLCIGPGVKAVKVADIEKASIMYPSNNCDKIEVIITLKENKGQRCLNPKSKQARLIIKKVERKNF

Molecular Weight

Approximately 8.3 kDa

Purity
  • Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE.
Appearance

Lyophilized powder

Formulation

Lyophilized after extensive dialysis against PBS.

Endotoxin Level

<0.2 EU/μg, determined by LAL method.

Reconstitution

It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100 μg/mL in ddH2O. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% BSA, 5% HSA, 10% FBS or 5% Trehalose).

Storage & Stability

Stored at -20°C for 2 years. After reconstitution, it is stable at 4°C for 1 week or -20°C for longer (with carrier protein). It is recommended to freeze aliquots at -20°C or -80°C for extended storage.

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Documentation
References

I-TAC/CXCL11 Protein, Human (HEK293) Related Classifications

Help & FAQs
  • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

    Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

  • Reconstitution Calculator

  • Dilution Calculator

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The reconstitution calculator equation

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration
= ÷

The dilution calculator equation

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)
× = ×
C1   V1   C2   V2

The specific activity calculator equation

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)
Unit/mg = 106 ÷ ng/mL

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I-TAC/CXCL11 Protein, Human (HEK293)
Cat. No.:
HY-P7228
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