1. Recombinant Proteins
  2. Cytokines and Growth Factors
  3. TGF-beta Superfamily Neurotrophic Factors
  4. Transforming Growth Factor-β TGF- β
  5. TGF-β2
  6. TGF beta 2/TGFB2 Protein, Human

TGF beta 2/TGFB2 Protein, Human

Cat. No.: HY-P7119
COA Handling Instructions

Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2), an extracellular glycosylated protein, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. TGFβ2 controls key physiological processes including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation via signalling through type I and type II receptors (TGFβR1 and TGFβR2). TGF-β2 is an immune suppressor involved in the development of immune tolerance, and also regulates embryonic development. TGF beta 2/TGFB2 Protein, Human is produced in HEK293 cells, and consists of 112 amino acids (A303-S414).

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

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Size Price Stock Quantity
10 μg $190 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
50 μg $790 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
100 μg $1050 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
250 μg   Get quote  

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  • Biological Activity

  • Technical Parameters

  • Properties

  • Documentation

  • References

Description

Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2), an extracellular glycosylated protein, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. TGFβ2 controls key physiological processes including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation via signalling through type I and type II receptors (TGFβR1 and TGFβR2). TGF-β2 is an immune suppressor involved in the development of immune tolerance, and also regulates embryonic development[1][2]. TGF beta 2/TGFB2 Protein, Human is produced in HEK293 cells, and consists of 112 amino acids (A303-S414).

Background

In mammals, three different isoforms of TGF-β are described (TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3; transforming growth factor beta) to regulate apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion processes utilising overlapping but not redundant mechanisms. All three isoforms are expressed in the liver, but their expression is differentially distributed among liver cell types. TGF-β2 expression in different liver cell types and is also associated with developmental defects and fibrotic diseases in mice[1][2][3].
The sequence of amino acids in TGF-β2 proteins from different species is very stable, which leads to the conclusion that in the process of evolution, TGF-β2 has been only slightly altered, and that both in humans and in animals, its function is similar.
TGFβ2 is a transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family cytokine, with members of this cytokine family playing broad regulatory roles and controlling key physiological processes including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation via signalling through type I and type II receptors (TGFβR1 and TGFβR2), with signals propagating via the downstream regulatory SMAD proteins. This TGFβ/SMAD pathway is frequently dysregulated in human cancer. TGFβ cytokines are capable of suppressing T cell growth in response to IL‐2. The degree of TGFβ2 expression correlated with the expression of several different markers of immune cell subsets within tumours. In addition, TGF-β2 regulates embryonic development and, therefore not surprisingly, global Tgfb2 null mice exhibit a wide range of developmental defects and perinatal mortality[1][2][3].
TGF-β2 is an immune suppressor involved in the development of immune tolerance, and recombinant TGF-β2 incubation is more potent than TGF-β1 or TGF-β3 in suppressing macrophage inflammatory responses. TGF-β2 is shown to correlate with bad prognosis in intrahepatic CCAs and hepatocellular carcinoma. Mechanistically, canonical Smad signalling as well as crosstalk with Yap, Hippo, Wnt and β-catenin signalling have been demonstrated in the liver and other organs[1][2][3].

In Vitro

Recombinant human TGF-β2 (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 ng/mL; for 24 h) increases extracellular matrix (ECM) protein synthesis and secretion in optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes and lamina cribrosa (LC) cells. TGF-β2 induces phosphorylation of canonical signaling proteins Smad2/3 but does not alter phosphorylation of non-canonical signaling proteins ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2 proteins in ONH astrocytes and LC cells[4].

Biological Activity
The ED50 is <0.2 ng/mL as measured by mouse HT-2 cells.
Species

Human

Source

HEK293

Tag

Tag Free

Accession

P61812 (A303-S414)

Gene ID
Synonyms
TGF-beta-2; Cetermin; G-TSF; TGFB2; Polyergin; rHuTGF-β2
AA Sequence

ALDAAYCFRNVQDNCCLRPLYIDFKRDLGWKWIHEPKGYNANFCAGACPYLWSSDTQHSRVLSLYNTINPEASASPCCVSQDLEPLTILYYIGKTPKIEQLSNMIVKSCKCS

Molecular Weight

Approximately 12.7 kDa

Appearance

Lyophilized powder.

Formulation

Lyophilized after extensive dialysis against 4 mM HCl.

Endotoxin Level

<1 EU/μg, determined by LAL method.

Reconstitution

It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100 μg/mL in ddH2O.

Storage & Stability

Stored at -20°C. After reconstitution, it is stable at 4°C for 1 week or -20°C for longer. It is recommended to freeze aliquots at -20°C or -80°C for extended storage.

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Documentation
References
Help & FAQs
  • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

    Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

  • Reconstitution Calculator

  • Dilution Calculator

  • Specific Active Calculator

The reconstitution calculator equation

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration
= ÷

The dilution calculator equation

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)
× = ×
C1   V1   C2   V2

The specific active calculator equation

Specific Active (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)

Specific Active (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)
Unit/mg = 106 ÷ ng/mL

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Product Name:
TGF beta 2/TGFB2 Protein, Human
Cat. No.:
HY-P7119
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