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D-Luciferin (Synonyms: D-(-)-Luciferin; Firefly luciferin)

Cat. No.: HY-12591A Purity: 98.81%
Handling Instructions

D-luciferin is the natural substrate of luciferases that catalyze the production of light in bioluminescent insects.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

D-Luciferin Chemical Structure

D-Luciferin Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 2591-17-5

Size Price Stock Quantity
10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO USD 55 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
10 mg USD 50 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
50 mg USD 90 In-stock
Estimated Time of Arrival: December 31
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Based on 2 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Other Forms of D-Luciferin:

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D-luciferin is the natural substrate of luciferases that catalyze the production of light in bioluminescent insects.

In Vitro

D-luciferin is the natural substrate of the enzyme luciferase (Luc), that catalyzes the production of the typical yellowgreen light of fireflies.The present review covers the synthesis of D-luciferin and derivatives or analogues that are substrates or inhibitors of the luciferase from the American firefly Photinus pyralis, the enzyme more frequently used in techniques of in vitro and optical imaging[1].

In Vivo

Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) using the firefly luciferase (Fluc) as a reporter gene and D-luciferin as a substrate is currently the most widely employed technique. The total signal intensity is plotted against the time after D-luciferin injection to generate a time-intensity curve. In addition to the peak signal, the signals at fixed time points (5, 10, 15, and 20 min) after D-luciferin injection are determined as alternatives to the peak signal. The signal in a given time-intensity curve is normalized for the peak signal in the curve to represent the pattern of temporal changes after D-luciferin injection[2].

Molecular Weight







O=C([[email protected]@H]1N=C(C2=NC3=CC=C(O)C=C3S2)SC1)O


Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere


4°C, protect from light

*In solvent : -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month (protect from light)

Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

DMSO : ≥ 100 mg/mL (356.74 mM)

H2O : < 0.1 mg/mL (insoluble)

*"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Stock Solutions
Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 3.5674 mL 17.8368 mL 35.6735 mL
5 mM 0.7135 mL 3.5674 mL 7.1347 mL
10 mM 0.3567 mL 1.7837 mL 3.5674 mL
*Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
In Vivo:
  • 1.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% saline

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (8.92 mM); Clear solution

  • 2.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in saline)

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (8.92 mM); Clear solution

*All of the co-solvents are provided by MCE.
Animal Administration

In vivo BLI is performed using a cooled charge-coupled device camera system (IVIS Imaging System 100) 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 19, 21, 24, and 28 days after the inoculation of HCT116-Luc cells. Mice are injected with 75 mg/kg D-luciferin in 100 μL of phosphate-buffered saline subcutaneously near the scapula and were placed in the light-tight chamber of the imaging system under isoflurane anesthesia. Beginning 5 min after injection, dorsal luminescent images with an exposure time of 1 s are acquired sequentially at a rate of one image per min until 20 min after D-luciferin injection. Data acquisition is continued until 40 min postinjection on days 3 or 5 and until 25 min on day 7, because of the prolonged time course of light emission. Binning is 4 and the field of view is 15 cm.

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

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