1. Recombinant Proteins
  2. Cytokines and Growth Factors
  3. Interferon & Receptors
  4. Type I IFNs

Type I interferon (IFN) consists of a group of structurally similar cytokines and include numerous IFN-α subtypes, IFN-β, IFN-δ, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, IFN-τ, IFN-ω, and IFN-ζ (limitin). There are 13 partially homologous IFNα subtypes in humans, and 14 in mice. In addition, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, and IFN-ω are found in humans, whereas IFN-δ, IFN-τ, and IFN-ζ (found only in mice) are not. Type I IFNs are typically produced in response to invading pathogens. Once produced, these cytokines all signal through the same receptor, the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) composed of two subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The interaction of Type I IFNs and IFNAR activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, leading to transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In addition to the classical JAK/STAT signaling pathway, type I IFNs activate several other signaling cascades, such as MAPKs, Akt, and PI3K pathways. Type I IFNs activate intracellular antimicrobial programmes and influence the development of innate and adaptive immune responses.

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