1. Recombinant Proteins
  2. Cytokines and Growth Factors
  3. Chemokine & Receptors
  4. CXC Chemokines
  5. CXCL9
  6. MIG/CXCL9 Protein, Human

MIG/CXCL9 Protein, Human

Cat. No.: HY-P7253
COA Handling Instructions

CXCL9, also known as MIG, is one member of the ELR-negative CXC chemokine subfamily, and can be induced by IFN-γ. CXCL9 binds to its receptor CXCR3 and can recruit CXCR3+ cells, such as effector T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. CXCL9 is involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes, but it also play a key role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. MIG/CXCL9 Protein, Human is produced in E.coil, and consists of 103 amino acids (T23-T125).

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

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Description

CXCL9, also known as MIG, is one member of the ELR-negative CXC chemokine subfamily, and can be induced by IFN-γ. CXCL9 binds to its receptor CXCR3 and can recruit CXCR3+ cells, such as effector T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. CXCL9 is involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes, but it also play a key role in tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis[1][2]. MIG/CXCL9 Protein, Human is produced in E.coil, and consists of 103 amino acids (T23-T125).

Background

CXCL9 is a member of the CXC family and has an important role in the chemotaxis of immune cells. It is secreted by various cell types including immune cells (T lymphocytes, NK cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, eosinophils, etc.), and non‐immune cells (hepatic stellate cells, preadipocytes, thyrocytes, endothelial cell, tumor cells, and fibroblasts, etc)[1].
The amino acid sequence of human CXCL9 protein has low homology between mouse and rat CXCL9 protein.
CXCL9 is one of the ligands of chemokine receptor CXCR3 that mediates the infiltration of lymphocytes to focal sites and suppresses tumor growth. CXCL9 attracts CXCR3- (CXCR3-A and CXCR3-B) T lymphocytes, is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of physiologic diseases during their initiation and their maintenance. The transcriptional regulation of CXCL9 is a multistep process involving many transcription factors, of which STAT1 and NF‐κB are two most well‐characterized members. Both the gene mutation of STAT1 and the blocking of the JA/STAT1 pathway can reduce CXCL9 expression induced by IFN-γ. Moreover, CXCL9 expression can be suppressed by reducing the levels of components of the STAT1-IRF‐1 transcriptional activation pathway by Porphyromonas gingivalis that leads to the immune function decline. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D‐galactosamine could induce the phosphorylation of STAT1 and enhance the transcription of CXCL9 leading to the enhancement of liver inflammation, and even liver apoptosis and injury[1][2][3].
CXCL9 could promote cancer metastasis via enhanced migration and invasion of tumor cells, and breaking of the endothelial cells monolayer. However, as a tumor suppressor, it mainly recruited tumor‐infiltrating CD8+ T cells and NK cells, and inhibited tumor angiogenesis. In Addition, IL-12 and Th1-derived IFN-γ exerted antitumor effects through the inhibitory effects of endogenous CXCL9 on tumor vasculature in human Burkitt's lymphoma. In cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, expression of CXCL9 was found at early stage but low at advanced stage. CXCL9 is also associated with human hepatic fibrosis and anti‐fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, CXCL9 is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques of coronary arteries and specifically recruits CXCR3-bearing Th1 cells that increase the risk of plaque progression and the occurrences of myocardial infarction[1][2][3][4].

In Vitro

CXCL9 (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL; 6 h, 10 h) induces NK-92 chemotaxis, and upregulats CXCR3, PI3K (p110γ), and PLC-β3 expression, increases the level of T-bet and STAT1, which associated with NK cell activation[6].
Thus, CXCL9 induces natural killer (NK) cells to be recruited to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and activate NK cytotoxicity against HCC[6].

In Vivo

Recombinant human CXCL9 (100 ng/mL; 5 days) up-regulates PD-L1 expression in bladder cancer T24 cells through its receptor CXCR3. And CXCL9 (72 hours) significantly enhances STAT3 and Akt activation in T24 cells[2].
Recombinant human CXCL9 (1, 10, and 100 ng/mL; 72 or 96 h) enhanced the growth and migration of normal human cardiac fibroblasts (NHCFs)[3].

Biological Activity

Full biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes is in a concentration range of 10-100 ng/mL.

Species

Human

Source

E. coli

Tag

Tag Free

Accession

Q07325 (T23-T125)

Gene ID
Molecular Construction
N-term
CXCL9 (T23-T125)
Accession # Q07325
C-term
Synonyms
rHuMIG/CXCL9; C-X-C motif chemokine 9; SCYB9
AA Sequence

TPVVRKGRCSCISTNQGTIHLQSLKDLKQFAPSPSCEKIEIIATLKNGVQTCLNPDSADVKELIKKWEKQVSQKKKQKNGKKHQKKKVLKVRKSQRSRQKKTT

Molecular Weight

Approximately 11.7 kDa

Purity

Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE.

Appearance

Lyophilized powder.

Formulation

Lyophilized after extensive dialysis against 20 mM PB, pH 7.4, 50 mM NaCl.

Endotoxin Level

<1 EU/μg, determined by LAL method.

Reconstitution

It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100 μg/mL in ddH2O. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% BSA, 5% HSA, 10% FBS or 5% Trehalose).

Storage & Stability

Stored at -20°C for 2 years. After reconstitution, it is stable at 4°C for 1 week or -20°C for longer (with carrier protein). It is recommended to freeze aliquots at -20°C or -80°C for extended storage.

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Documentation
References

MIG/CXCL9 Protein, Human Related Classifications

Help & FAQs
  • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

    Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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The reconstitution calculator equation

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration
= ÷

The dilution calculator equation

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)
× = ×
C1   V1   C2   V2

The specific activity calculator equation

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)
Unit/mg = 106 ÷ ng/mL

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MIG/CXCL9 Protein, Human
Cat. No.:
HY-P7253
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