1. GPCR/G Protein Neuronal Signaling
  2. mGluR
  3. trans-ACPD

trans-ACPD  (Synonyms: Trans-(±)-ACP)

Cat. No.: HY-19434 Purity: ≥98.0%
COA Handling Instructions

trans-ACPD, a metabotropic receptor agonist, produces calcium mobilization and an inward current in cultured cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

trans-ACPD Chemical Structure

trans-ACPD Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 67684-64-4

Size Price Stock Quantity
Solid + Solvent (Highly Recommended)
10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO
ready for reconstitution
USD 87 In-stock
Solution
10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO USD 87 In-stock
Solid
2 mg USD 79 In-stock
5 mg USD 119 In-stock
10 mg USD 198 In-stock
25 mg USD 396 In-stock
50 mg USD 726 In-stock
100 mg USD 1162 In-stock
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Customer Review

Based on 1 publication(s) in Google Scholar

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Description

trans-ACPD, a metabotropic receptor agonist, produces calcium mobilization and an inward current in cultured cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

IC50 & Target[1]

mGluR

 

In Vitro

Excitatory amino acid (EAA) analogues activate receptors that are coupled to the increased hydrolysis of phosphoinositides (PIs). In these studies, hippocampal slices are prepared from neonatal rats (6-11 days old) to characterize the effects of EAA analogues on these receptors. The concentrations of trans-ACPD required to evoke half-maximal stimulation (EC50 value) is 51 μM. DL-2-Amino-3-phosphonopropionate (DL-AP3) is also equipotent as an inhibitor of PI hydrolysis stimulated by ibotenate, quisqualate, and trans-ACPD (IC50 values are 480-850 μM)[2].

MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

In Vivo

Intrathecal injection of NMDA, kainate, and trans-ACPD, TNF-α, or IL-1β causes significant (p<0.001) biting behaviour in mice compared to animals injected intrathecally with saline. In all groups, systemic pre-treatment with GM (100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (p<0.001) reduces the biting behaviour compared to mice treated with saline (10 mL/kg, i.p.). The greatest effect of GM is observed on the pro-inflammatory cytokines and NMDA, with the following inhibition percentages: TNF-α (92±7%), IL-1β (91±5%), NMDA (69±1%), and trans-ACPD (71±12%). By contrast, at the same dose, GM has no significant effect on the kainate-mediated biting response[3].

MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

Molecular Weight

173.17

Formula

C7H11NO4

CAS No.
Appearance

Solid

Color

White to off-white

SMILES

O=C([C@]1(N)C[C@@H](C(O)=O)CC1)O

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Storage
Powder -20°C 3 years
4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 2 years
-20°C 1 year
Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

DMSO : 50 mg/mL (288.73 mM; Need ultrasonic; Hygroscopic DMSO has a significant impact on the solubility of product, please use newly opened DMSO)

H2O : 3.57 mg/mL (20.62 mM; Need ultrasonic)

Preparing
Stock Solutions
Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 5.7747 mL 28.8734 mL 57.7467 mL
5 mM 1.1549 mL 5.7747 mL 11.5493 mL
View the Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

* Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 2 years; -20°C, 1 year. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 2 years. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 year.

* Note: If you choose water as the stock solution, please dilute it to the working solution, then filter and sterilize it with a 0.22 μm filter before use.

  • Molarity Calculator

  • Dilution Calculator

Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

Mass
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Concentration
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Volume
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Molecular Weight *

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

Concentration (start)

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In Vivo:

Select the appropriate dissolution method based on your experimental animal and administration route.

For the following dissolution methods, please ensure to first prepare a clear stock solution using an In Vitro approach and then sequentially add co-solvents:
To ensure reliable experimental results, the clarified stock solution can be appropriately stored based on storage conditions. As for the working solution for in vivo experiments, it is recommended to prepare freshly and use it on the same day.
The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

  • Protocol 1

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% Saline

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (14.44 mM); Clear solution

    This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

    Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (25.0 mg/mL) to 400 μL PEG300, and mix evenly; then add 50 μL Tween-80 and mix evenly; then add 450 μL Saline to adjust the volume to 1 mL.

    Preparation of Saline: Dissolve 0.9 g sodium chloride in ddH₂O and dilute to 100 mL to obtain a clear Saline solution.
  • Protocol 2

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% Corn Oil

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (14.44 mM); Clear solution

    This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (saturation unknown). If the continuous dosing period exceeds half a month, please choose this protocol carefully.

    Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (25.0 mg/mL) to 900 μL Corn oil, and mix evenly.

For the following dissolution methods, please prepare the working solution directly. It is recommended to prepare fresh solutions and use them promptly within a short period of time.
The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

  • Protocol 1

    Add each solvent one by one:  PBS

    Solubility: 5 mg/mL (28.87 mM); Clear solution; Need ultrasonic and warming and heat to 60°C

In Vivo Dissolution Calculator
Please enter the basic information of animal experiments:

Dosage

mg/kg

Animal weight
(per animal)

g

Dosing volume
(per animal)

μL

Number of animals

Recommended: Prepare an additional quantity of animals to account for potential losses during experiments.
Please enter your animal formula composition:
%
DMSO +
+
%
Tween-80 +
%
Saline
Recommended: Keep the proportion of DMSO in working solution below 2% if your animal is weak.
The co-solvents required include: DMSO, . All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE). , Tween 80. All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE).
Calculation results:
Working solution concentration: mg/mL
Method for preparing stock solution: mg drug dissolved in μL  DMSO (Stock solution concentration: mg/mL).
The concentration of the stock solution you require exceeds the measured solubility. The following solution is for reference only. If necessary, please contact MedChemExpress (MCE).
Method for preparing in vivo working solution for animal experiments: Take μL DMSO stock solution, add μL . μL , mix evenly, next add μL Tween 80, mix evenly, then add μL Saline.
 If the continuous dosing period exceeds half a month, please choose this protocol carefully.
Please ensure that the stock solution in the first step is dissolved to a clear state, and add co-solvents in sequence. You can use ultrasonic heating (ultrasonic cleaner, recommended frequency 20-40 kHz), vortexing, etc. to assist dissolution.
Purity & Documentation
References
Animal Administration
[3]

Mice[3]
Male Swiss mice (25-35 g) are used. Intrathecal injections are given to fully conscious mice. Briefly, the animals are manually restrained, and a 30-gauge needle connected by a polyethylene tube to a 25 μL Hamilton gas-tight syringe is inserted through the skin and between the vertebrae into the subdural space of the L5-L6 spinal segments. Intrathecal injections (5 μL/site) are administered over a period of 5 s. Biting behaviour is defined as a single head movement directed at the flanks or hind limbs, resulting in contact of the animal's snout with the target organ. The nociceptive response is elicited by NMDA (450 pmol/site, a selective agonist of the NMDA glutamatergic ionotropic receptor), kainate (110 pmol/site, a selective agonist of the kainate subtype of glutamatergic ionotropic receptors), and trans-ACPD (50 nmol/site, a non-selective agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors, which is active at group I and group II), TNF-α (0.1 pmol/site) and IL-1β (1 pmol/site) or saline (5 μL/site, i.t.). The amount of time the animal spent biting or licking the caudal region is taken as evidence of nociception and is evaluated following local post injections of the following agonists: NMDA (5 min), kainate (4 min), and trans-ACPD TNF-α, and IL-1β (15 min). Animals received GM (100 mg/kg, i.p.) 0.5 h before intrathecal injection of 5 μL of the drugs, while control animals received a similar volume of saline (10 mL/kg, i.p.).

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

References

Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

* Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 2 years; -20°C, 1 year. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 2 years. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 year.

Optional Solvent Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 25 mg
H2O / DMSO 1 mM 5.7747 mL 28.8734 mL 57.7467 mL 144.3668 mL
5 mM 1.1549 mL 5.7747 mL 11.5493 mL 28.8734 mL
10 mM 0.5775 mL 2.8873 mL 5.7747 mL 14.4367 mL
15 mM 0.3850 mL 1.9249 mL 3.8498 mL 9.6245 mL
20 mM 0.2887 mL 1.4437 mL 2.8873 mL 7.2183 mL
DMSO 25 mM 0.2310 mL 1.1549 mL 2.3099 mL 5.7747 mL
30 mM 0.1925 mL 0.9624 mL 1.9249 mL 4.8122 mL
40 mM 0.1444 mL 0.7218 mL 1.4437 mL 3.6092 mL
50 mM 0.1155 mL 0.5775 mL 1.1549 mL 2.8873 mL
60 mM 0.0962 mL 0.4812 mL 0.9624 mL 2.4061 mL
80 mM 0.0722 mL 0.3609 mL 0.7218 mL 1.8046 mL
100 mM 0.0577 mL 0.2887 mL 0.5775 mL 1.4437 mL

* Note: If you choose water as the stock solution, please dilute it to the working solution, then filter and sterilize it with a 0.22 μm filter before use.

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Help & FAQs
  • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

    Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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