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  6. MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human

MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human

Cat. No.: HY-P7265
COA Handling Instructions

MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human is a CC chemokine ligand that binds to PITPNM3, GPR30 and CCR8 receptors and also acts as a neutral CCR3 antagonist mediating inflammation, autoimmunity and carcinogenesis. MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human is a recombinant human MIP-4/CCL18 (A21-A89) protein expressed by E. coli.

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  • Biological Activity

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Description

MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human is a CC chemokine ligand that binds to PITPNM3, GPR30 and CCR8 receptors and also acts as a neutral CCR3 antagonist mediating inflammation, autoimmunity and carcinogenesis. MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human is a recombinant human MIP-4/CCL18 (A21-A89) protein expressed by E. coli[1][2].

Background

CCL18, also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-4 (MIP-4), pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine (PARC), dendritic cell (DC)-chemokine 1 (DC-CK1) and alternative macrophage activation-associated CC chemokine-1 (AMAC-1), is a small cell factor of the CC chemokine family. CCL18 is located on chromosome 17 in the human gene and has the highest amino acid identity (65%) with CCL3, encoding an 89 amino acid long protein with a 20 amino acid long peptide signal sequence at the N' terminus that signals its secretion and is cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum into a 69 amino acid long mature protein[1]. CCL18 is mainly produced by antigen-presenting cells of the innate immune system, including dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages, but not in T and B cells. In macrophages, CCL18 is induced by the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, which program macrophages to differentiate into AAMs, which contribute to the healing phase of acute inflammatory responses and to tissue remodeling and fibrosis in chronic inflammatory diseases.CCL18 can bind to PITPNM3, GPR30, and CCR8 receptors, where CCL18 binding to CCR8 binding induces chemotaxis of Th2 cells. In addition, CCL18 can also act as a neutral CCR3 antagonist and participate in the inflammatory response. It has been shown that CCL18 and its receptor CCR8 are co-expressed in diseased human tissues during active eosinophilic inflammation. In parallel, enhanced production of CCL18 has been demonstrated in a variety of diseases, including various malignancies and inflammatory joint, lung and skin diseases[2].

In Vitro

CCL18 (20 ng/mL, 12-48 h) promotes HUVEC angiogenesis and enhances HUVEC migration without enhancing proliferation, while blocking the effect of CCL18 with a neutralizing anti-CCL18(10 μg/mL) antibody inhibits tumor-associated macrophages(TAM)-dependent HUVEC migration in a concentration-dependent manner[3].
CCL18 (50 or 100 ng/mL, 36 h) results in significantly lower E-cadherin expression levels and higher MMP-2 and VEGF-C expression levels compared to controls, also can promote migration and invasion via CCR8 in bladder cancer cells[4].

Biological Activity

Full biological activity determined by a chemotaxis bioassay using human T-lymphocytes is in a concentration of 1.0-10 ng/ml.

Species

Human

Source

E. coli

Tag

Tag Free

Accession

P55774 (A21-A89)

Gene ID
Synonyms
rHuMIP-4/CCL18; C-C motif chemokine 18; AMAC-1; SCYA18
AA Sequence

AQVGTNKELCCLVYTSWQIPQKFIVDYSETSPQCPKPGVILLTKRGRQICADPNKKWVQKYISDLKLNA

Molecular Weight

Approximately 7.9 kDa

Purity

Greater than 95% as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE.

Appearance

Lyophilized powder.

Formulation

Lyophilized after extensive dialysis against 20 mM PB, pH 7.4, 100 mM NaCl.

Endotoxin Level

<1 EU/μg, determined by LAL method.

Reconstitution

It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100 μg/mL in ddH2O. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% BSA, 5% HSA, 10% FBS or 5% Trehalose).

Storage & Stability

Stored at -20°C for 2 years. After reconstitution, it is stable at 4°C for 1 week or -20°C for longer (with carrier protein). It is recommended to freeze aliquots at -20°C or -80°C for extended storage.

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Documentation
References

MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human Related Classifications

Help & FAQs
  • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

    Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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The reconstitution calculator equation

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration
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The dilution calculator equation

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)
× = ×
C1   V1   C2   V2

The specific activity calculator equation

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)
Unit/mg = 106 ÷ ng/mL

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MIP-4/CCL18 Protein, Human
Cat. No.:
HY-P7265
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