1. Apoptosis NF-κB Metabolic Enzyme/Protease Immunology/Inflammation
  2. Apoptosis Reactive Oxygen Species Caspase Bcl-2 Family Mitochondrial Metabolism
  3. Azoramide

Azoramide is a potent, orally active small-molecule modulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Azoramide improves ER protein folding and elevates ER chaperone capacity, which together protects cells against ER stress. Azoramide alleviates PLA2G6 mutant-induced ER stress through modulating unfolded protein response, and enhances the CERB signaling to rescue mitochondrial function, thereby preventing apoptosis of DA neurons. Azoramide has antidiabetic activity.

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Azoramide Chemical Structure

Azoramide Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 932986-18-0

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Solid + Solvent
10 mM * 1 mL in DMSO
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Customer Review

Based on 5 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

    Azoramide purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Stem Cell Res Ther. 2018 Mar 9;9(1):57.  [Abstract]

    Western blot of Runx2 protein in C3H10T1/2 cells subjected to 15 μM Azoramide.
    • Biological Activity

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    • Customer Review

    Description

    Azoramide is a potent, orally active small-molecule modulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Azoramide improves ER protein folding and elevates ER chaperone capacity, which together protects cells against ER stress. Azoramide alleviates PLA2G6 mutant-induced ER stress through modulating unfolded protein response, and enhances the CERB signaling to rescue mitochondrial function, thereby preventing apoptosis of DA neurons. Azoramide has antidiabetic activity[1][2].

    In Vitro

    Azoramide (0.01-100 µM; 0-24 h; Huh7 cells) regulates ER folding and secretion capacity without inducing ER stress[1].
    Azoramide (15 µM; 2-16 h; Huh7 cells) protects cells from induced ER stress. Azoramide counteracts Tunicamycin (Tm, HY-A0098)-induced ATF6LD-Cluc secretion and Tm-induced decrease of ASGR-Cluc secretion. Azoramide suppresses Tm-induced GRP78 and CHOP protein expression[1].
    Azoramide (15 µM; 2-16 h; Hepa 1-6 cells) alters ER calcium homeostasis and retains a greater fraction of Ca2+ in the ER[1].
    Azoramide (0-10 µM; 5 d) attenuates loss of PLA2G6D331Y/D331Y iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons[2].
    Azoramide (10 µM; 5 d) reduces the increase in ROS and ameliorates the decline in mitochondrial membrane potential in PLA2G6D331Y/D331Y midbrain DA neurons[2].
    Azoramide (10 µM; 0-30 d) suppresses mitochondrial fragmentation in PLA2G6D331Y/D331Y midbrain DA neurons[2].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Cell Viability Assay[2]

    Cell Line: DA neurons
    Concentration: 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 µM
    Incubation Time: 5 days
    Result: Enhanced cell viability with 27 and 39% for 3 and 10 μM, respectively.

    Western Blot Analysis[2]

    Cell Line: DA neurons
    Concentration: 10 μM
    Incubation Time: 24 hours
    Result: Decreased the cleaved level of caspase 3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 in PLA2G6 mutant neurons.
    Enhanced expression of CREB in PLA2G6 mutant neurons.

    Western Blot Analysis[2]

    Cell Line: DA neurons
    Concentration: 10 μM
    Incubation Time: 30 days
    Result: Suppressed increased expression of UPR proteins, elevated the decreased expression level of mfn1, and inhibited the elevated expression levels of DRP1 and Fis1 in PLA2G6 mutant neurons
    In Vivo

    Azoramide (150 mg/kg; p.o.; daily, for 7 d; Huh7 cells; ob/ob mice) improves glucose homeostasis in mice with genetic obesity and preserves beta cell function and survival during metabolic ER stress[1].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Animal Model: Male ob/ob mice (9-12 weeks of age)[1]
    Dosage: 150 mg/kg
    Administration: Oral administration; daily, for 7 days
    Result: Reduces ER stress and improves metabolism in ob/ob mice.
    Increased the levels of Pdx1 mRNA and improved beta cell function.
    Molecular Weight

    308.83

    Formula

    C15H17ClN2OS

    CAS No.
    Appearance

    Solid

    Color

    White to off-white

    SMILES

    CCCC(NCCC1=CSC(C2=CC=C(Cl)C=C2)=N1)=O

    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

    Storage
    Powder -20°C 3 years
    4°C 2 years
    In solvent -80°C 2 years
    -20°C 1 year
    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : ≥ 30 mg/mL (97.14 mM; Hygroscopic DMSO has a significant impact on the solubility of product, please use newly opened DMSO)

    Ethanol : 2 mg/mL (6.48 mM; Need ultrasonic)

    *"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

    Preparing
    Stock Solutions
    Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 3.2380 mL 16.1901 mL 32.3803 mL
    5 mM 0.6476 mL 3.2380 mL 6.4761 mL
    View the Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 2 years; -20°C, 1 year. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 2 years. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 year.

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    • Dilution Calculator

    Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

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    Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

    This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

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    In Vivo:

    Select the appropriate dissolution method based on your experimental animal and administration route.

    For the following dissolution methods, please ensure to first prepare a clear stock solution using an In Vitro approach and then sequentially add co-solvents:
    To ensure reliable experimental results, the clarified stock solution can be appropriately stored based on storage conditions. As for the working solution for in vivo experiments, it is recommended to prepare freshly and use it on the same day.
    The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

    • Protocol 1

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% Saline

      Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (8.10 mM); Clear solution

      This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

      Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (25.0 mg/mL) to 400 μL PEG300, and mix evenly; then add 50 μL Tween-80 and mix evenly; then add 450 μL Saline to adjust the volume to 1 mL.

      Preparation of Saline: Dissolve 0.9 g sodium chloride in ddH₂O and dilute to 100 mL to obtain a clear Saline solution.
    • Protocol 2

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in Saline)

      Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (8.10 mM); Clear solution

      This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

      Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (25.0 mg/mL) to 900 μL 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline, and mix evenly.

      Preparation of 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline (4°C, storage for one week): 2 g SBE-β-CD powder is dissolved in 10 mL Saline, completely dissolve until clear.
    In Vivo Dissolution Calculator
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    Recommended: Prepare an additional quantity of animals to account for potential losses during experiments.
    Please enter your animal formula composition:
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    Recommended: Keep the proportion of DMSO in working solution below 2% if your animal is weak.
    The co-solvents required include: DMSO, . All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE). , Tween 80. All of co-solvents are available by MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Calculation results:
    Working solution concentration: mg/mL
    Method for preparing stock solution: mg drug dissolved in μL  DMSO (Stock solution concentration: mg/mL).
    The concentration of the stock solution you require exceeds the measured solubility. The following solution is for reference only. If necessary, please contact MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Method for preparing in vivo working solution for animal experiments: Take μL DMSO stock solution, add μL . μL , mix evenly, next add μL Tween 80, mix evenly, then add μL Saline.
     If the continuous dosing period exceeds half a month, please choose this protocol carefully.
    Please ensure that the stock solution in the first step is dissolved to a clear state, and add co-solvents in sequence. You can use ultrasonic heating (ultrasonic cleaner, recommended frequency 20-40 kHz), vortexing, etc. to assist dissolution.
    Purity & Documentation

    Purity: 99.44%

    References

    Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 2 years; -20°C, 1 year. When stored at -80°C, please use it within 2 years. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 year.

    Optional Solvent Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 25 mg
    Ethanol / DMSO 1 mM 3.2380 mL 16.1901 mL 32.3803 mL 80.9507 mL
    5 mM 0.6476 mL 3.2380 mL 6.4761 mL 16.1901 mL
    DMSO 10 mM 0.3238 mL 1.6190 mL 3.2380 mL 8.0951 mL
    15 mM 0.2159 mL 1.0793 mL 2.1587 mL 5.3967 mL
    20 mM 0.1619 mL 0.8095 mL 1.6190 mL 4.0475 mL
    25 mM 0.1295 mL 0.6476 mL 1.2952 mL 3.2380 mL
    30 mM 0.1079 mL 0.5397 mL 1.0793 mL 2.6984 mL
    40 mM 0.0810 mL 0.4048 mL 0.8095 mL 2.0238 mL
    50 mM 0.0648 mL 0.3238 mL 0.6476 mL 1.6190 mL
    60 mM 0.0540 mL 0.2698 mL 0.5397 mL 1.3492 mL
    80 mM 0.0405 mL 0.2024 mL 0.4048 mL 1.0119 mL
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    • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

      Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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