1. Recombinant Proteins
  2. Cytokines and Growth Factors Biotinylated Proteins
  3. TGF-beta Superfamily Neurotrophic Factors
  4. Growth Differentiation Factor GDNF family
  5. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15)
  6. GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc)

GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc)

Cat. No.: HY-P78134
COA Handling Instructions

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc) has 112 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.

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Description

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ)[1]. GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc) has 112 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.

Background

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 was highly expressed in placenta, low in prostate and colon, and to some extent in kidney. So GDF-15 is also known as placental transforming growth factor PGF-β, placental bone morphogenetic protein PLAB, and prostatus-derived factor PDF. GDF-15 has a wide range of biological functions in physiology and pathology, especially in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GDF-15 is initially stored in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it undergoes proteolytic hydrolysis upon external stimulation to form an active form that is quickly secreted into circulation. In mouse cardiomyocytes, the cleavage process of GDF-15 may be catalyzed by the enzymes of the PCSK family, resulting in a mature dimer form. Upstream of the GDF15 promoter site, there are binding sites for various transcription factors, including specific protein 1 (Sp1), early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1), p53 and COUP transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1). The receptor of GDF-15 is alpha-like protein (GFRAL), a receptor of the glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. The GFRAL-GDF15 complex binds to the tyrosine kinase co-receptor RET, leading to RET phosphorylation. Subsequently, GFRAL-GDF15 continued to activate the intracellular signaling pathways of AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ), but not the SMAD pathway. GDF-15 is overexpressed during and after many pathological states such as tissue injury and inflammation. The stimulating factors that contribute to this result include oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), cytokines, and growth factors such as IL-1β, TNF-α, angiotensin II, macrophage colony-stimulating factor M-CSF, and TGFβ. GDF-15, also known as the NSAIDS drug activator gene NAG-1, may play an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting macrophage activation. GDF-15 also inhibits the activity of NFκB or the expression of several cytokines, including interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). GDF-15 has significant resistance to endotoxin-induced sepsis caused by acute kidney injury (AKI) and myocardial dysfunction. GDF-15 also appears to promote tumor growth in the later stages of malignancy. Elevated serum GDF15 levels have been reported as potential biomarkers for cancer progression, including breast, colon, pancreatic, and prostate tumors, among others. In human and cynomolgus monkeys, the amino acid sequence similarity of GDF-15 protein was high, and the similarity rate was 91.56%. Compared with the amino acid sequences of mice and rats, the similarity of human GDF-15 was low (59.73% and 59.39%, respectively)[1].

In Vitro

GDF-15 (human; 100 ng/mL; 20 min) inhibits rapid neutrophil arrest induced by 100 ng/mL CXCL1 in vivo in an ALK-5 and TGF-βRII dependent way[2].
GDF-15 also has inhibitory effects on neutrophil integrin activation[2].

In Vivo

GDF-15 (4 μg; injected via the carotid artery) reduces the number of arrested leukocytes 1 minute after chemokine injection by 50% when compared with PBS injections[2].

Biological Activity

Immobilized Biotinylated Human GFRAL His at 1 μg/mL (100μL/Well) on the plate. Dose response curve for Biotinylated Human GDF15 hFc with the EC50 < 6.5 ng/mL determined by ELISA.

Species

Human

Source

HEK293

Tag

N-hFc

Accession

Q99988 (A197-I308)

Gene ID
Synonyms
GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta; Placental TGF-β; PTGF-β; PTGFBPTGF-β
Molecular Weight

40-50 kDa

Purity

Greater than 95% as determined by Tris-Bis PAGE.

Appearance

Lyophilized powder.

Formulation

Lyophilized from a 0.22 μm filtered solution of PBS, pH 7.4. Normally 5% trehalose is added as protectant before lyophilization.

Endotoxin Level

<1 EU/μg, determined by LAL method.

Reconstitution

It is not recommended to reconstitute to a concentration less than 100 μg/mL in ddH2O.

Storage & Stability

Stored at -20°C for 2 years. After reconstitution, it is stable at 4°C for 1 week or -20°C for longer. It is recommended to freeze aliquots at -20°C or -80°C for extended storage.

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Documentation
References
Help & FAQs
  • Do most proteins show cross-species activity?

    Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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The reconstitution calculator equation

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration

Volume (to add to vial) = Mass (in vial) ÷ Desired Reconstitution Concentration
= ÷

The dilution calculator equation

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)
× = ×
C1   V1   C2   V2

The specific activity calculator equation

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)

Specific Activity (Unit/mg) = 106 ÷ Biological Activity (ED50)
Unit/mg = 106 ÷ ng/mL

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GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc)
Cat. No.:
HY-P78134
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