1. Recombinant Proteins
  2. Cytokines and Growth Factors
  3. TGF-beta Superfamily Neurotrophic Factors
  4. Growth Differentiation Factor GDNF family
  5. Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15)

Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15)

Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 was highly expressed in placenta, low in prostate and colon, and to some extent in kidney. So GDF-15 is also known as placental transforming growth factor PGF-β, placental bone morphogenetic protein PLAB, and prostatus-derived factor PDF. GDF-15 has a wide range of biological functions in physiology and pathology, especially in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GDF-15 is initially stored in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it undergoes proteolytic hydrolysis upon external stimulation to form an active form that is quickly secreted into circulation. In mouse cardiomyocytes, the cleavage process of GDF-15 may be catalyzed by the enzymes of the PCSK family, resulting in a mature dimer form. Upstream of the GDF15 promoter site, there are binding sites for various transcription factors, including specific protein 1 (Sp1), early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1), p53 and COUP transcription factor 1 (COUP-TF1). The receptor of GDF-15 is alpha-like protein (GFRAL), a receptor of the glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family. The GFRAL-GDF15 complex binds to the tyrosine kinase co-receptor RET, leading to RET phosphorylation. Subsequently, GFRAL-GDF15 continued to activate the intracellular signaling pathways of AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ), but not the SMAD pathway. GDF-15 is overexpressed during and after many pathological states such as tissue injury and inflammation. The stimulating factors that contribute to this result include oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), cytokines, and growth factors such as IL-1β, TNF-α, angiotensin II, macrophage colony-stimulating factor M-CSF, and TGFβ. GDF-15, also known as the NSAIDS drug activator gene NAG-1, may play an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting macrophage activation. GDF-15 also inhibits the activity of NFκB or the expression of several cytokines, including interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). GDF-15 has significant resistance to endotoxin-induced sepsis caused by acute kidney injury (AKI) and myocardial dysfunction. GDF-15 also appears to promote tumor growth in the later stages of malignancy. Elevated serum GDF15 levels have been reported as potential biomarkers for cancer progression, including breast, colon, pancreatic, and prostate tumors, among others. In human and cynomolgus monkeys, the amino acid sequence similarity of GDF-15 protein was high, and the similarity rate was 91.56%. Compared with the amino acid sequences of mice and rats, the similarity of human GDF-15 was low (59.73% and 59.39%, respectively)[1].

Cat. No. Product Name / Synonyms Species Source
  • HY-P77945
    GDF-15 Protein, Mouse (HEK293, Fc)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

    Mouse HEK293
    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Mouse (HEK293, Fc) has 115 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.
  • HY-P77946
    GDF-15 Protein, Mouse (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

    Mouse HEK293
    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Mouse (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc) has 115 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.
  • HY-P78134
    GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta; Placental TGF-β; PTGF-β; PTGFBPTGF-β

    Human HEK293
    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc) has 112 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.
  • HY-P75171
    GDF-15 Protein, Human (HEK293, Fc)

    Growth/differentiation factor 15; MIC-1; NAG-1; NRG-1; PTGFB

    Human HEK293
    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Human (HEK293, Fc) has 112 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.
  • HY-P75170
    GDF-15 Protein, Human (P.pastoris, His)

    Growth/differentiation factor 15; MIC-1; NAG-1; NRG-1; PTGFB

    Human P. pastoris
    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Human (P.pastoris, His) has 112 amino acids expressed by P.pastoris yeast cells with N-terminal His tag.
  • HY-P700726
    GDF-15 Protein, Canine (His)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta; Placental TGF-β; PTGF-β; PTGFBPTGF-β

    Canine E. coli
    The GDF-15 Protein, a significant TGF-beta family member, plays a crucial role in cell growth, differentiation, and immune regulation. Its study enhances understanding of signaling pathways associated with the TGF-beta superfamily and provides insights into its unique contributions to cellular homeostasis. GDF-15's classification within the TGF-beta family underscores its specific role among growth factors. Further exploration promises to enhance our knowledge of its contributions to both normal physiology and disease states, offering potential applications in cancer research, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. GDF-15 Protein, Canine (His) is the recombinant canine-derived GDF-15 protein, expressed by E. coli, with N-His labeled tag. The total length of GDF-15 Protein, Canine (His) is 111 a.a., with molecular weight of 15-20 kDa under reduced (R) condition & 23-26 kDa under Non reduced (N) condition., respectively.
  • HY-P700727
    GDF-15 Protein, Rat (His)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta; Placental TGF-β; PTGF-β; PTGFBPTGF-β

    Rat E. coli
    GDF-15 Protein regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses. Binding to its receptor, GFRAL, activates GFRAL-expressing neurons in the brainstem, triggering a 'stress response circuit.' This involves neurons in the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala, shaping feeding responses during stress. Additionally, GDF-15 inhibits growth hormone signaling on hepatocytes. Existing as a disulfide-linked homodimer, it acts as a ligand for GFRAL, mediating GDF15 internalization and cellular signaling through RET. GDF-15 Protein, Rat (His) is the recombinant rat-derived GDF-15 protein, expressed by E. coli, with N-His labeled tag. The total length of GDF-15 Protein, Rat (His) is 115 a.a., with molecular weight of 15-17 kDa.
  • HY-P700293
    GDF-15 Protein, Mouse (HEK293, His-Flag)

    Growth Differentiation Factor 15; Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1; GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PLAB; PTGFB; Gdf15; Sbf

    Mouse HEK293
    GDF-15 Protein regulates food intake, energy balance, and body weight by binding to its receptor, GFRAL. This activates GFRAL-expressing neurons in the brainstem, triggering a 'emergency circuit' in the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala during stress. GDF-15 also inhibits growth hormone signaling on hepatocytes and forms a disulfide-linked homodimer. Interacting with GFRAL, it acts as a ligand, facilitating GDF15 internalization and signaling through RET. GDF-15 Protein, Mouse (HEK293, His-Flag) is the recombinant mouse-derived GDF-15 protein, expressed by HEK293, with N-8*His, N-Flag labeled tag. The total length of GDF-15 Protein, Mouse (HEK293, His-Flag) is 115 a.a., with molecular weight of 14-16 kDa.
  • HY-P77681
    GDF-15 Protein, Cynomolgus (HEK293, Fc)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

    Cynomolgus HEK293
    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Cynomolgus (HEK293, Fc) has 112 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.
  • HY-P77682
    GDF-15 Protein, Cynomolgus (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta

    Cynomolgus HEK293
    Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a polypeptide hormone belonging to the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily. GDF-15 is also known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug activating Gene-1 (NAG-1), placental transforming growth factor-β (PTGFB), prostate-derived factor (PDF), and placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB). GDF-15 binds to glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor alpha-like protein (GFRAL) and is involved in aging, cancer, and metabolic processes. GFRAL-GDF15 does not affect SMAD activity and activates intracellular signals including RET, AKT, ERK1/2, and phospholipase C (PLCγ). GDF-15 Protein, Cynomolgus (Biotinylated, HEK293, Fc) has 112 amino acids expressed by HEK293 cells with N-terminal hFc tag.
  • HY-P700665
    GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, His-Avi)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta; Placental TGF-β; PTGF-β; PTGFBPTGF-β

    Human E. coli
    GDF-15 Protein is central to regulating food intake, energy expenditure, and body weight in response to metabolic and toxin-induced stresses. It binds to its receptor, GFRAL, activating GFRAL-expressing neurons in the brainstem. This triggers the activation of neurons in the parabrachial nucleus and central amygdala, shaping feeding responses during stress. Moreover, GDF-15 inhibits growth hormone signaling on hepatocytes and acts as a ligand for RET, mediating cellular signaling through GDF15 internalization. GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, His-Avi) is the recombinant human-derived GDF-15 protein, expressed by E. coli, with C-Avi, N-His labeled tag. The total length of GDF-15 Protein, Human (Biotinylated, His-Avi) is 112 a.a., with molecular weight of 15.19 kDa.
  • HY-P700866
    GDF-15 Protein, Cynomolgus (His)

    GDF-15; MIC-1; NAG-1; PDF; PLAB; PTGFB; GDF15; MIC1; RG-1; Placental TGF-beta; PTGF-beta; PTGFBPTGF-beta; Placental TGF-β; PTGF-β; PTGFBPTGF-β

    Cynomolgus E. coli
    GDF-15 Protein, a key regulator of food intake and energy balance, binds to its receptor GFRAL, activating neurons in the brainstem and forming an 'emergency circuit' for feeding responses during stress. Additionally, GDF-15 inhibits growth hormone signaling on hepatocytes, existing as a disulfide-linked homodimer. Interacting with GFRAL, it acts as a ligand, mediating GDF15 internalization and cellular signaling through RET. GDF-15 Protein, Cynomolgus (His) is the recombinant cynomolgus-derived GDF-15 protein, expressed by E. coli, with N-His labeled tag. The total length of GDF-15 Protein, Cynomolgus (His) is 116 a.a., with molecular weight of 15-18 kDa.
Cat. No. Product Name Effect Purity