1. Immunology/Inflammation
    NF-κB
    Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
  2. Reactive Oxygen Species
  3. (±)-Carnitine chloride

(±)-Carnitine chloride (Synonyms: DL-Carnitine chloride)

Cat. No.: HY-B1453 Purity: >98.0%
Handling Instructions

(±)-Carnitine chloride exists in two isomers, known as D and L. L-carnitine plays an essential role in the β-oxidation of fatty acids and also shows antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

(±)-Carnitine chloride Chemical Structure

(±)-Carnitine chloride Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 461-05-2

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Based on 1 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Other Forms of (±)-Carnitine chloride:

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Description

(±)-Carnitine chloride exists in two isomers, known as D and L. L-carnitine plays an essential role in the β-oxidation of fatty acids and also shows antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.

In Vitro

The main role of L-carnitine is to shuttle long-chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane. After L-carnitine and acyl-CoA become acyl-carnitine by activation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)-I, the transported acyl-carnitine is changed into acyl-CoA by CPT-II in the mitochondria matrix. Palmitoyl-CoA-induced mitochondrial respiration is increased by L-carnitine treatment, and then is accelerated by the presence of ADP. This acceleration is induced by treatment with L-carnitine in a concentration-dependent manner, and is saturated at 5 mM L-carnitine[1]. Pretreatment with L-carnitine augments Nrf2 nuclear translocation, DNA binding activity and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in H2O2-treated HL7702 cells. L-carnitine protects HL7702 cells against H2O2-induced cell damage through Akt-mediated activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway[2].

In Vivo

L-carnitine is found to down-regulate the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and increase IGF-1 concentrations in animal models. L-carnitine administration for 2 weeks of hindlimb suspension alleviates the decrease in weight and fiber size in the soleus muscle. In addition, L-carnitine suppresses atrogin-1 mRNA expression, which has been reported to play a pivotal role in muscle atrophy[3]. Simultaneous treatment with L-carnitine attenuates the renal fibrosis (which correlated with a reduction of plasma TGF-β1 levels) and the pro-oxidative and proinflammatory status reported in L-NAME groups, with a concomitant increase in the expression of PPAR-γ[4].

Molecular Weight

197.66

Formula

C₇H₁₆ClNO₃

CAS No.

461-05-2

SMILES

C[N+](C)(C)CC(O)CC(O)=O.[Cl-]

Shipping

Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

Storage
Powder -20°C 3 years
  4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months
  -20°C 1 month
Solvent & Solubility
In Vitro: 

H2O : ≥ 100 mg/mL (505.92 mM)

DMSO : 25 mg/mL (126.48 mM; Need ultrasonic)

*"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.

Preparing
Stock Solutions
Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 5.0592 mL 25.2960 mL 50.5919 mL
5 mM 1.0118 mL 5.0592 mL 10.1184 mL
10 mM 0.5059 mL 2.5296 mL 5.0592 mL
*Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent.
In Vivo:
  • 1.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% saline

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (12.65 mM); Clear solution

  • 2.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in saline)

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (12.65 mM); Clear solution

  • 3.

    Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% corn oil

    Solubility: ≥ 2.5 mg/mL (12.65 mM); Clear solution

*All of the co-solvents are provided by MCE.
References
Kinase Assay
[1]

Mitochondria (0.6 mg protein/mL) are incubated in 2.5 mM Hepes (pH7.4) containing 225 mM mannitol, 75 mM sucrose and 100 μM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) with or without 5 mM L-carnitine at 25°C. To measure oxygen uptake, 10 min after inorganic phosphate (Pi) 4 mM are added, the mitochondria are treated with palmitoyl-CoA (50 μM) and then ADP is added (200 μM). Oligomycin (5 μM) and rotenone (10 μM) are added 3-4 min after the ADP treatment. HPG (0-10 mM), which can specifically inhibit carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT)-I activity in the mitochondria, is added in the Hepes medium before incubation of the mitochondria[1].

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

Animal Administration
[3]

Rats: After 1 week of acclimatization, rats are randomly assigned to a hindlimb suspension group, hindlimb suspension with L-carnitine administration group, and a pair-fed group. The L-carnitine group are administered a 1250 mg L-carnitine/kg dissolved in distilled water orally using a sonde. The body weight is measured every morning at 09:00 and L-carnitine solution is ingested every morning at 10:00. The experiment is conducted for 14 days[3].

MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

References
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Keywords:

(±)-CarnitineDL-CarnitineReactive Oxygen SpeciesInhibitorinhibitorinhibit

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