1. Epigenetics PI3K/Akt/mTOR Autophagy Stem Cell/Wnt Metabolic Enzyme/Protease
  2. AMPK Autophagy YAP Mitophagy Endogenous Metabolite
  3. AICAR phosphate

AICAR phosphate  (Synonyms: Acadesine phosphate; AICA Riboside phosphate)

Cat. No.: HY-13417A Purity: 99.80%
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AICAR phosphate (Acadesine phosphate) is an adenosine analog and a AMPK activator. AICAR phosphate regulates the glucose and lipid metabolism, and inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS production. AICAR phosphate is also an autophagy, YAP and mitophagy inhibitor.

For research use only. We do not sell to patients.

AICAR phosphate Chemical Structure

AICAR phosphate Chemical Structure

CAS No. : 681006-28-0

Size Price Stock Quantity
Solid + Solvent (Highly Recommended)
10 mM * 1 mL in Water
ready for reconstitution
USD 66 In-stock
Solution
10 mM * 1 mL in Water USD 66 In-stock
Solid
50 mg USD 60 In-stock
100 mg USD 94 In-stock
200 mg USD 156 In-stock
500 mg USD 336 In-stock
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Customer Review

Based on 140 publication(s) in Google Scholar

Other Forms of AICAR phosphate:

Top Publications Citing Use of Products

130 Publications Citing Use of MCE AICAR phosphate

RT-PCR
WB

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Antioxid Redox Signal. 2023 Apr 13.  [Abstract]

    AICAR (0.5 mM; 12 h) significantly increases the expression of Mfn2 in BUMPT Cells.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Cell Death Dis. 2018 May 1;9(5):515.  [Abstract]

    Protein expression levels of AMPKα, p-AMPKα-thr172, p-ACC-ser79, LC3, Beclin-1, ATG5 and ATG7 in WT MSCs or control CrispCas MSCs, or AMPKα DKO MSCs before and after treatment with FAC or AICAR.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018 Nov;1864(11):3723-3738.  [Abstract]

    The effect of AICAR on the expression of AMPK, p-AMPK, mTOR, p-mTOR, and autophagy-related protein by Western blot analysis.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Front Pharmacol. 2018 Apr 16;9:345.  [Abstract]

    AMP-activated protein kinase activation by AST inhibits the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and SREBP-1c related genes. AST promotes AMPKa1 mRNA expression, AMPKa2 mRNA expression, and suppresses the expression of SREBP-1c, and its downstream genes FAS, ACC1, and also AMPK downstream gene SCD1.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Front Pharmacol. 2018 Apr 16;9:345.  [Abstract]

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation by AST blunts dysfunction of lipid metabolism and resistance in HepG2 cells. Representative bands of SREBP-1c nuclear protein and cytoplasmic proteins are visualized in the immunoblotting assay.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: J Cell Physiol. 2018 Dec;233(12):9701-9715.  [Abstract]

    HUVECs are pretreated with Compound C (5, 10, or 20 μM) for 18 hr or AICAR (1, 2, or 4 mM) for 1 hr, and then exposed to LSS for 30 min.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Front Pharmacol. 2018 Jul 16;9:761.  [Abstract]

    Epithelial cells from colon tissue are extracted from mice in each group (n=6-8 per group) and protein level of p-AMPK (Thr172) and AMPKα1/2 are measured by western blot.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Int J Mol Med. 2018 May;41(5):2535-2544.  [Abstract]

    Cells are treated with AICAR and AICAR (A++, 10 μM) + Compound C (C++, 1 μM) for 24 h, after which western blot analysis is performed.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Int J Mol Med. 2018 May;41(5):2535-2544.  [Abstract]

    MC3T3-E1 cells are treated with AICAR (10 μM) in the presence or absence of 3-MA (5 mM) or CQ (10 μM) for 24 h, after which western blot analysis is conducted.

    AICAR phosphate purchased from MedChemExpress. Usage Cited in: Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018 Feb 1;50(2):144-155.  [Abstract]

    Raw264.7 macrophages with serum deprivation are treated with 50 μM Rg1 for 48 h in absence or presence of compound C (10 mM) or AICAR (250 μM). Western blots of the protein expressions of Atg5, Beclin1, LC3, and p62/SQSMT1.

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    • Biological Activity

    • Protocol

    • Purity & Documentation

    • References

    • Customer Review

    Description

    AICAR phosphate (Acadesine phosphate) is an adenosine analog and a AMPK activator. AICAR phosphate regulates the glucose and lipid metabolism, and inhibits proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS production. AICAR phosphate is also an autophagy, YAP and mitophagy inhibitor[1][2].

    IC50 & Target[1]

    AMPK

     

    Autophagy

     

    Mitophagy

     

    Human Endogenous Metabolite

     

    In Vitro

    HepG2 cells are treated with various concentrations of AICAR (0.1-1.0 mM) for 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. The expression level of IR-β significantly decreases with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mM of AICAR at 48 h to 50%, 53%, and 46% of the control, respectively[1].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    In Vivo

    Fourteen-week-old male, lean (L; 31.3 g body wt) wild-type andob/ob (O; 59.6 g body wt) mice are injected with the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR (A) at 0.5 mg*g body wt-1*day-1 or saline control (C) for 14 days. At 24 h after the last injection (including a 12-h fast), all mice are killed, and the plantar flexor complex muscle (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) is excised for analysis. Muscle mass is lower in OC (159±12 mg) than LC, LA, and OA (176±10, 178±9, and 166±16 mg, respectively) mice, independent of a body weight change[3]. The kidney weight is significantly higher in the untreated group when compared with both the exercise and AICAR (0.5 mg/g body wt) groups. The heart weight is higher in the exercise group than in the other groups, whereas the liver weight is significantly higher in the AICAR-treated group when compared with the exercise and untreated groups[4].

    MedChemExpress (MCE) has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Clinical Trial
    Molecular Weight

    356.23

    Formula

    C9H17N4O9P

    CAS No.
    Appearance

    Solid

    Color

    White to off-white

    SMILES

    OC[C@@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](N2C=NC(C(N)=O)=C2N)O1.O=P(O)(O)O

    Structure Classification
    Initial Source

    Body

    Shipping

    Room temperature in continental US; may vary elsewhere.

    Storage

    4°C, sealed storage, away from moisture

    *In solvent : -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month (sealed storage, away from moisture)

    Solvent & Solubility
    In Vitro: 

    DMSO : 250 mg/mL (701.79 mM; Need ultrasonic; Hygroscopic DMSO has a significant impact on the solubility of product, please use newly opened DMSO)

    H2O : 100 mg/mL (280.72 mM; Need ultrasonic)

    Preparing
    Stock Solutions
    Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
    1 mM 2.8072 mL 14.0359 mL 28.0718 mL
    5 mM 0.5614 mL 2.8072 mL 5.6143 mL
    View the Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month (sealed storage, away from moisture). When stored at -80°C, please use it within 6 months. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 month.

    * Note: If you choose water as the stock solution, please dilute it to the working solution, then filter and sterilize it with a 0.22 μm filter before use.

    • Molarity Calculator

    • Dilution Calculator

    Mass (g) = Concentration (mol/L) × Volume (L) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

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    Concentration (start) × Volume (start) = Concentration (final) × Volume (final)

    This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2

    Concentration (start)

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    In Vivo:

    Select the appropriate dissolution method based on your experimental animal and administration route.

    For the following dissolution methods, please ensure to first prepare a clear stock solution using an In Vitro approach and then sequentially add co-solvents:
    To ensure reliable experimental results, the clarified stock solution can be appropriately stored based on storage conditions. As for the working solution for in vivo experiments, it is recommended to prepare freshly and use it on the same day.
    The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

    • Protocol 1

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    40% PEG300    5% Tween-80    45% Saline

      Solubility: ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (5.84 mM); Clear solution

      This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

      Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (20.8 mg/mL) to 400 μL PEG300, and mix evenly; then add 50 μL Tween-80 and mix evenly; then add 450 μL Saline to adjust the volume to 1 mL.

      Preparation of Saline: Dissolve 0.9 g sodium chloride in ddH₂O and dilute to 100 mL to obtain a clear Saline solution.
    • Protocol 2

      Add each solvent one by one:  10% DMSO    90% (20% SBE-β-CD in Saline)

      Solubility: ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (5.84 mM); Clear solution

      This protocol yields a clear solution of ≥ 2.08 mg/mL (saturation unknown).

      Taking 1 mL working solution as an example, add 100 μL DMSO stock solution (20.8 mg/mL) to 900 μL 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline, and mix evenly.

      Preparation of 20% SBE-β-CD in Saline (4°C, storage for one week): 2 g SBE-β-CD powder is dissolved in 10 mL Saline, completely dissolve until clear.

    For the following dissolution methods, please prepare the working solution directly. It is recommended to prepare fresh solutions and use them promptly within a short period of time.
    The percentages shown for the solvents indicate their volumetric ratio in the final prepared solution. If precipitation or phase separation occurs during preparation, heat and/or sonication can be used to aid dissolution.

    • Protocol 1

      Add each solvent one by one:  PBS

      Solubility: 33.33 mg/mL (93.56 mM); Clear solution; Need ultrasonic

    In Vivo Dissolution Calculator
    Please enter the basic information of animal experiments:

    Dosage

    mg/kg

    Animal weight
    (per animal)

    g

    Dosing volume
    (per animal)

    μL

    Number of animals

    Recommended: Prepare an additional quantity of animals to account for potential losses during experiments.
    Calculation results:
    Working solution concentration: mg/mL
    This product has good water solubility, please refer to the measured solubility data in water/PBS/Saline for details.
    The concentration of the stock solution you require exceeds the measured solubility. The following solution is for reference only.If necessary, please contact MedChemExpress (MCE).
    Purity & Documentation

    Purity: 99.80%

    References
    Cell Assay
    [1]

    HepG2 cells (5×105 cells) are plated in 6-well culture plate dishes and then are incubated in the serum-free media for 12 h before transfection. One microgram of plasmid is transfected with FuGENE6 Transfection Reagent. After 5 h of transfection, the culture media are removed and then media supplemented with or without AICAR (0.1-1.0 mM) are added to each well. The stimulation media are changed every 24 h[1].

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    Animal Administration
    [2][3]

    Mice[2]
    Fourteen-week-old lean (Lepob/+ or Lepob/+) and ob/ob (Lepob/Lepob/) male mice are uesd. After the 14-day experimental treatment (24 h after AICAR injection, including a 12-h fast), the plantar flexor complex muscle is cleanly (tendon-to-tendon) excised from an anesthetized mouse. The muscle is quickly weighed and then processed for histology or frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C. The anesthetized mice are killed by transection of the diaphragm and removal of the entire heart, after blood collection via needle puncture directly into the heart. AICAR or saline (control) is injected subcutaneously into the lateral distal portion of the back. AICAR is administered at 0.5 mg*g body wt-1*day-1 one time per day for 14 days. Saline (control) is injected in volumes identical to those used for AICAR treatment in a manner identical to that of AICAR treatment. Body weight is measured prior to death.
    Rats[3]
    Male 5-week-old ZDF rats are either subcutaneously injected with a single dose of AICAR (0.5 mg/g body wt) or underwent a single bout of treadmill running (60 min, speed of 25 m/min at a 5% incline). Untreated ZDF rats serve as controls (n=5 in each group). One hour after the subcutaneous AICAR injection or immediately after treadmill running, rats are killed by cervical dislocation. To avoid any effect of muscle spasm and hypoxia, red and white gastrocnemius muscles are removed within seconds and immediately freeze clamped for later determination of AMPK activity.

    MCE has not independently confirmed the accuracy of these methods. They are for reference only.

    References

    Complete Stock Solution Preparation Table

    * Please refer to the solubility information to select the appropriate solvent. Once prepared, please aliquot and store the solution to prevent product inactivation from repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Storage method and period of stock solution: -80°C, 6 months; -20°C, 1 month (sealed storage, away from moisture). When stored at -80°C, please use it within 6 months. When stored at -20°C, please use it within 1 month.

    Optional Solvent Concentration Solvent Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg 25 mg
    H2O / DMSO 1 mM 2.8072 mL 14.0359 mL 28.0718 mL 70.1794 mL
    5 mM 0.5614 mL 2.8072 mL 5.6144 mL 14.0359 mL
    10 mM 0.2807 mL 1.4036 mL 2.8072 mL 7.0179 mL
    15 mM 0.1871 mL 0.9357 mL 1.8715 mL 4.6786 mL
    20 mM 0.1404 mL 0.7018 mL 1.4036 mL 3.5090 mL
    25 mM 0.1123 mL 0.5614 mL 1.1229 mL 2.8072 mL
    30 mM 0.0936 mL 0.4679 mL 0.9357 mL 2.3393 mL
    40 mM 0.0702 mL 0.3509 mL 0.7018 mL 1.7545 mL
    50 mM 0.0561 mL 0.2807 mL 0.5614 mL 1.4036 mL
    60 mM 0.0468 mL 0.2339 mL 0.4679 mL 1.1697 mL
    80 mM 0.0351 mL 0.1754 mL 0.3509 mL 0.8772 mL
    100 mM 0.0281 mL 0.1404 mL 0.2807 mL 0.7018 mL

    * Note: If you choose water as the stock solution, please dilute it to the working solution, then filter and sterilize it with a 0.22 μm filter before use.

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      Species cross-reactivity must be investigated individually for each product. Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. Other proteins may have a lower specific activity when used in the opposite species.

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